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Nanomaterial safety and regulations in personal care product development

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  1. Brief history of nanomaterial regulations

 According to Wikipedia, the word “nanotechnology” was first coined by Professor Norio Taniguchi of Tokyo University in 1974. He used it to describe semiconductor processes such as thin film deposition and ion beam milling, which exhibit characteristic control on the order of a nanometer.  Since the 1980s, the term nanotechnology has been referring to the fabrication, use/manipulation, control and characterization of structures devices or materials with a least one dimension in the size range of 1–100 nm. 1,2

Nanotechnologies represent a fast-growing market, bringing with them a combination of benefits, promises, risks, and uncertainties.  It is synonymous with high technology and high efficacy. It has often been used as a buzzword in advertisements and label claims of many consumer products, including personal care products, to gain attention.  Various physical and chemical properties of a material can be affected by its particle size. Nanomaterials have been engineered to have enhanced properties and performance that are beyond their non-nano counterparts. However, these much enhanced properties also raises questions about their safety.

In June 2007, the safety of nanomaterials such as nano TiO2 in sunscreen and fulluerene was raised in the article, Nanotechnology, the untold promise, and unknown risk, in Consumer Reports.  In August 2007, Friend of Earth (FOE) published Technology and Sunscreens, raising the particular concern over nano TiO2 and ZnO in sunscreens and calling for labeling and regulation of nanomaterials in consumer products. Earlier in 2006, a coalition of environmental and consumer groups, including the International Center for Technology Assessment, Friends of the Earth, and Our Bodies, Ourselves, filed a legal petition with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) asking FDA to regulate nanotechnology.

The first regulatory move was made by European Commission (EC).   EC acknowledged the safety concerns considering that nanomaterials could have very different physical and chemical properties over their non-nano counterparts, potentially resulting in different toxicological profiles. In 2005, the EU Scientific Committee on Consumer Products was requested by EC to provide a scientific opinion on the safety of nanomaterials in cosmetic products, in particular, the appropriateness of existing methodologies to assess the potential risk associated. This created public fear regarding nanomaterials in consumer products, especially in personal care products. In the meantime, the uncertainty of the future regulatory landscape made it extremely difficult for cosmetic formulators to incorporate nanomaterials in any formulation.

In 2009, REGULATION (EC) No 1223/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 30 November 2009 on cosmetic products stated the purpose and need of a definition of nanomaterial, which has been evolving since. Most recently, COMMISSION RECOMMENDATION of 10 June 2022 on the definition of nanomaterial, C 229/1, defines nanomaterial as follows:

Nanomaterial means a natural, incidental, or manufactured material consisting of solid particles that are present, either on their own or as identifiable constituent particles in aggregates or agglomerates, and where 50 % or more of these particles in the number-based size distribution fulfill at least one of the following conditions:

– one or more external dimensions of the particle are in the size range 1 nm to 100 nm;
– the particle has an elongated shape, such as a rod, fibre or tube, where two external dimensions are smaller than 1 nm and the other dimension is larger than 100 nm.
– the particle has a plate-like shape, where one external dimension is smaller than 1 nm and the other dimensions are larger than 100 nm

Moreover, Article 16 of Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 on cosmetic products requires that, in addition to the notification under Article 13, cosmetic products containing nanomaterials shall be notified to the Commission by the Responsible Person using electronic means six months prior to being placed on the market. Notification should be done on Cosmetic Products Notification Portal (CPNP).

 

  1. Interpretation of nanomaterial definition:

The interpretation of the nanomaterial definition depends to a large extent on the size measurement method. Because of the structural complexity of nanomaterials, no single test method is capable of measuring all nanomaterials precisely and properly. EC recommends determining nanomaterial by its primary particle size or internal structure while allowing sectoral interpretation according to the actual use conditions, which may vary drastically from industry to industry.

In 2011, Cosmetic Europe issued their own interpretation of EC definition of nanomaterial, and then an update in 2019, stating that “materials with constitutive elements having a dimension in the nano-range (e.g. aggregates, agglomerates, composites) but that are themselves greater than 100 nm in size should not be considered as nanomaterials unless they release nano-objects or aggregates of less than 100 nm in size in cosmetic products under normal use conditions”.  Accordingly, the size of aggregates or agglomerates is used to determine the nanomaterial for labeling cosmetic products. This interpretation has been followed by many cosmetic companies.

 

  1. Commercial use of nanomaterials

According to a EC’s report, Sub-working group of on nanomaterial definition, published on January 28, 2021, 37,647 cosmetic products were notified with nanomaterials in EU market, (via Art.13 procedure), which corresponds to about 1.5% of all notifications. According to 2015 – 2020 data, on average, about 10 new cosmetic products containing nanomaterials are placed on the EU market every day.

Most common product categories with nanomaterials: (64% of all nanomaterials notifications):

  1. Sun protection
  2. Nail varnish/nail make up
  3. Oxidative hair care
  4. Foundation
  5. Lip care products and lipsticks

The most used cosmetic ingredients are reported below (4 ingredients accounts for over 70% of all CPNP notifications):

  1. Titanium Dioxide
  2. Silica Dimethyl Silylate, Silane, dichlorodimethyl-, reaction products with silica
  3. Carbon Black nano (CI77266)
  4. Silica

Scientific Committee for Consumer Safety (SCCS) under European Commission is requested by EC to evaluate the safety of the listed nanomaterials via a process that was based on the scientific literature available at the time and SCCS’ expert judgment. In early 2021, SCCS published an advice on the safety of nanomaterials in cosmetics, in which nanomaterials of concern were separated into two groups. 3

     — 16(4) of the Cosmetics Regulation

28 substances including silica, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Methylene Bis Benzotriazolyl Tetramethylbutylphenol were listed in the appendix 1 in an order of priority according to risk potential (based on a number of criteria).

     — 16(6) of the Cosmetics Regulation

SCCS reviewed three previous inclusive opinions on colloid silver, nano styrene/acrylate polymer and nano silica, and identified certain aspects relating to each of these nanomateirals that raised safety concern.

 

  1. Nano TiO2 /ZnO in sunscreens

For personal care products, nano TiO2 and ZnO are perhaps the two most concerning ingredients due to their wide use as sunscreen actives. Because of their very small primary particle size, nano TiO2 and ZnO are much more transparent on the skin and much more potent in UV protection than their non-nano or pigmentary counterparts. For instance, pigmentary TiO2 is known to be completely opaque and cannot be used in any skin care product for effective UV protection.  Nano TiO2, with a primary size of 10 – 20 nm, is not only highly transparent but also provides 5 – 6 times higher SPF.   For this reason, nano TiO2 and ZnO have been used widely in sunscreen products in Japan and Australia since 1980s.  They have been popular among those having sensitive skin and allergic to organic sunscreens.

Up to now, and after the use by hundreds of millions of consumers, there have been no reports of any adverse health effects for nano TiO2 and ZnO. However, they were still put under great scrutiny due to the general concerns and fear that were raised for nanomaterials in early 2000s.  Many customers, especially in EU, became somewhat nanophobic at the time as the future of regulatory landscape remained uncertain.

For topical application, the major concern is transdermal adsorption or penetration.  After years of study, SCCS issued in 2012 OPINION ON Zinc oxide (nano form) COLIPA S76 stating thatThere is no evidence for the absorption of ZnO nanoparticles through skin and via the oral route. Even if there was any dermal and/or oral absorption of ZnO nanoparticles, continuous dissolution of zinc ions would lead to complete solubilization of the particles in the biological environment.” 4 Two years later, the SCCS issued the OPINION ON 22 on Titanium Dioxide (nano form), stating “the main consideration in the current assessment is the apparent lack of penetration of TiO2 nanoparticles through skin.” 5

Another concern is photo-catalytic activity of nano TiO2 that lead to generation of free radicals and ensuing oxidation.  Surface treatment of nano TiO2 had been quite common, and the data collected by SCCSs on commercial grades confirmed that the photo-catalytic activity could be much suppressed by surface treatment.

Finally, EU revised the nano TiO2 monograph for use as UV filters in 2016. The key updates included a list of allowed surface treatments and a limit on the photocatalytic activity. In the same year, ZnO was officially approved as an UV filter, and a list of surface treatments and solubility specification were included in the monograph. 6

After years of investigation, EC finally concluded that nano TiO2 and ZnO were safe for personal care use as long as:

  1. They comply with the specifications in the EU monographs.
  2. The final product will not lead to exposure of the end-user’s lungs by inhalation.

For other nanomaterials under review, the SCCS has yet to establish final opinions. The future regulatory status remains uncertain.

 

  1. Regulations in other regions

Nanomaterial is generally defined as a material with internal or external dimensions in the range of 1 – 100 nm in other regions.   Many regulatory agencies share similar concerns to EC’s, but they have not acted as swiftly as EC.  Although there are guidelines for considering the safety of nanomaterials, there are few laws enacted to regulate them.  To the author’s knowledge, there are two regulations outside EU:

A) Canada – If a sunscreen product contains only inorganic UV filters, nano TiO2 and/or ZnO, it is considered a Natural Health Product, for which the premarket approval is not needed. However, if any of the two is used with organic UV filters, the sunscreen is a drug product. Safety of nano TiO2/ZnO needs to be addressed and approved, which can be painstaking. Further, there is no official test method and threshold for classifying nanomaterials.

B) China – “Regulations on the Supervision and Administration of Children’s Cosmetics” issued by the State Food and Drug Administration (2021 No. 123), was issued in 2021. Section 7.1 states that:

“….. New raw materials that are still in the monitoring period should not be used, and raw materials prepared by new technologies such as genetic technology and nanotechnology should not be used. If there is no alternative raw material that must be used, the reason should be explained, and evaluate the safety of children’s cosmetics”.

Since nano TiO2 and ZnO are not new technologies, they could be exempted from this regulation. However, the ambiguity in interpreting the regulatory language and difficulty in effective communication with Chinese officials have made many company shy away from nano TiO2 or ZnO, and instead turning to the non-nano grades.

 

  1. Summary

Nanomaterial safety and regulations are important to personal care product development. Many nanomateterials used in our industry are under safety review and their future is uncertain. As far as nano TiO2 and ZnO are concerned, it is official that they are safe as long as they are not exposed to end-users’ lung in application. Due to the complex structures of nanomaterials, their size analysis method, data interpretation and regulatory classification have been constantly investigated and are still evolving. Formulators are highly advised to consult with their regulatory experts as well as the suppliers when choosing nano or non-nanomaterials.

 

References:

  1. (2007a) Opinion on: the Scientific Aspects of the Existing Proposed Definition Relating to Products of Nanoscience Nanotechnologies. Brussels: European Commission Health Consumer Protection Directorate General.
    SCENHIR. (2007b) Opinion on: the Appropriateness of the Risk Assessment Methodology in Accordance with the Technical Guidance Documents for the New and Existing Substances for Assessing the Risk of Nanomaterials. Brussels.
  1. ISO/TS 27687. (2008). Nanotechnologies – Terminology and Definitions for Nano-objects – Nanoparticle, Nanofibre and Nanoplate.
  2. SCCS/1618/2020 Scientific Advice; https://health.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2022-08/sccs_o_239.pdf
  3. SCCS/1489/12; https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_103.pdf
  4. SCCS/1516/13 Revision of 22 April 2014; https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_136.pdf
  5. COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2016/1143 of 13 July 2016, amending Annex VI to Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on cosmetic products

A stem-cell based approach against photoaging

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We have all heard the term “photoaging” and can agree on its definition, succinctly described by the Canadian Dermatology Association: “Photoaging is premature aging of the skin caused by repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV), primarily from the sun but also from artificial UV sources. Photoaging differs from chronologic aging: the damaging effects of UV rays – from the sun or artificial tanning sources – alter normal skin structures.”(1) As a result, this UV light causes DNA changes at a cellular level, and because photodamage happens in the deepest layers of the skin – the dermis – it can take years before the damage surfaces and becomes visible(2). (As we all know, UVA radiation is highly damaging, penetrating much deeper than UVB radiation; while UVB causes sunburn, UVA results in premature skin aging and wrinkle formation – and both, of course, can cause skin cancers(3).) Historically speaking, our industry has long focused on protection against UV radiation via the use of sunscreens (which remain on the surface of the skin), but later scientific advances have produced ingredients and formulations intended to penetrate the skin and act to protect cells in the dermal and epidermal layers. And the most recent efforts have been concentrated on the protection of keratinocyte stem cells in the epidermis against UVA-induced DNA lesions, along with boosting the cells’ endogenous DNA-repair system.

It must be mentioned that the concept of “stem cells” commonly brings to mind embryonic stem cells, which can form new cells of any kind, but here we are referring to epidermal stem cells, which can only differentiate into keratinocytes. And as we know from basic skin biology, keratinocytes – if healthy – can potentially renew indefinitely, providing a continuous supply of new cells to the epidermis as part of the essential renewal process of the skin.

But back to the topic of UVA protection: It has been shown that epidermal stem cells have a greater capacity to fight against UVA aggression than their “daughter”, or differentiated, cells, due to more efficient repair mechanisms(4). By the same token, epidermal stem cells are highly sensitive to UVA-induced damage and lose their “stemness” potential when exposed to excessive UVA radiation, which is why it is of utmost importance to protect these stem cells so that they remain robust and productive. It has recently been discovered that an extract from the fruit sechium edule can provide significant biological protection to these stem cells against UVA-induced epidermal damage(5).

The protective effect of sechium edule fruit extract on the epidermis can be observed through its protection against UVA-induced DNA damage, boosting of DNA repair capacities, and maintenance of the stemness potential of keratinocytes.

It was found that exposure to UVA induces the formation of oxidative DNA lesions, specifically 8-oxoG lesions, in keratinocyte cells and causes extensive damage to DNA in the form of fragmentation. A study conducted with the comet assay showcases the severity of UVA-induced damage on DNA as visualized in the samples exposed to UVA with the fragmented DNA forming a tail behind intact DNA. Treatment with sechium edule fruit extract helps to protect keratinocytes by significantly reducing the number of oxidative lesions thereby helping to keep the DNA intact (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. Protection against UVA-induced DNA damage (***p<0.001) (6)

As mentioned earlier, the human body is equipped with its own endogenous repair mechanisms that can repair DNA, but these mechanisms can often be affected by UV and become less effective. The next study looked at the enzymes involved in the repair of 8-oxoG lesions, OGG1 & MYH. The treatment of keratinocytes with the extract brought about a significant increase in the mRNA expression of both OOG1 and MYH suggesting an increase in the DNA repair capacities (see Figure 2).

Figure 2. Increase in enzymes associated with DNA repair capacities of 8oxo-G lesions (***: p<0.001; *: p<0.05) (6)

The most important aspect of protection against photoaging is the preservation of the stemness potential of keratinocytes to ensure proper epidermal homeostasis. The last study observed the ability of keratinocyte stem cells to multiply and form new keratinocytes. In the graph below, holoclones refer to cells capable of extensive proliferation and meroclones are cells with limited proliferation capacity. You can think of holoclones as keratinocyte stem cells and meroclones as daughter cells.

When exposed to UVA, the holoclones change into meroclones and the number of colonies drastically decreases, showcasing that the stemness potential has been negatively impacted by UV exposure and the self-renewal capacity lost. In comparison, holoclones treated with the extract of sechium edule fruit and exposed to UVA present a significant increase in number of colonies and the stemness potential of keratinocytes preserved (see Figure 3).

 

Figure 3. The preservation of stemness potential in keratinocytes (6)

In conclusion, when the “stemness” potential of the keratinocytes is preserved it results in proper skin homeostasis and can lead to improved skin appearance (smoother skin, reduced wrinkles, more even skin tone, etc.). In addition to the use of broad-spectrum sunscreens (always recommended!), an active such as the one described above derived from the fruit of sechium edule is another tool in the arsenal of the formulating chemist in the ongoing fight against the effects of photoaging and UV-damage.

References:

  1. dermatology.ca
  2. yalemedicine.org
  3. uihc.org
  4. Metral, Elodie, et al., “Keratinocyte stem cells are more resistant to UVA radiation than their direct progeny.” PLOS ONE, 2018 Sept, vol. 13, n° 9, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203863
  5. Metral, Elodie, et al., “Long-term Genoprotection Effect of Sechium edule Fruit Extract Against UVA Irradiation in Keratinocytes.”, Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2018 Mar; 94(2): 343-350, https://doi.org/10.1111/php.12854
  6. Metral, Elodie, et al. “Long-Term Genoprotection Effect of Sechium Edule Fruit Extract against UVA Irradiation in Keratinocytes.” Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2018 Mar; 94(2): 343-350, https://doi.org/10.1111/php.12854

 

Authors:


Ben Blinder is the Executive Director, Business Operations at Gattefossé USA, with P/L responsibility for the personal care and pharmaceutical business units in the US and Mexico. He is also a founding member of the Advisory Committee on Diversity & Inclusion for Gattefossé in North America. Ben holds a BS in chemical engineering from Lehigh University.

 


Christina Philips is the Technical Marketing Leader at Gattefossé USA, responsible for providing information on trends and customer insights and technical marketing support for the sales team. She works closely with formulation chemists at the North American Technical Center to provide customers with informative lab sessions and conceptualize sensorial prototypes that highlight the company’s ingredients. She also volunteers as the Director of Empowerment for FOREFRONT Charity. Christina holds a BS in cellular and molecular biology from the University of Connecticut.

Silicone Alternative Solutions for Hair Care

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Introduction

Silicones have been widely used in the cosmetic industry for decades. They are exceptionally versatile and impart multifaceted benefits across a wide range of beauty and personal care products. Not all silicones have been created equal, however, and some of these materials are now limited by regulatory restrictions on their use. Due to an increasing focus on their toxicological and environmental impact, consumers are now gravitating towards natural, safe, and sustainable alternatives. This article provides an overview on how silicones have shaped the hair care industry and the continuous research necessary to find innovative and environmentally friendly alternatives to silicones.

Influence of Silicones in the Hair Care Industry

Silicones have been important ingredients in hair care products since the 1950’s. Silicones or silicone derivatives are widely used in shampoos, conditioners, colorants, or styling products where they act as either emollients, humectants, film formers, antifoaming, anti-static, or binding agents [1]. These materials range from basic cyclic or linear polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to polyether-and amino-based fluids and silicone resins [2]. All silicones have a natural origin (silica), but synthetic processes are used to create the plethora of silicone ingredients used in cosmetics [3].

Linear PDMS, also known as dimethicone, is available in a range of molecular weights and viscosities and is most used in hair care applications. They provide excellent conditioning and performance which increases with higher viscosity. Use of dimethicone reduces combing forces, provides great sensory benefits like gliding, and adds suppleness to hair.

Phenyl trimethicone is also based on linear PDMS with the addition of phenyl groups [4]. This combination results in a higher refractive index that effectively coats the hair enhancing its shine and leaving hair soft. PDMS polymers are also highly water resistant which makes them effective agents in reducing tackiness of the formulations.

Cyclic polydimethylsiloxane (cyclic PDMS) or cyclomethicones fluids are characterized by ring structures typically containing three to six groups per ring [2]. These fluids decrease combing forces by reducing friction and surface energy [4]. Due to their volatility and fast spreading properties, they provide transient gloss to hair, leaving hair weightless and without any build-up. Cyclomethicones are more compatible with a wider range of ingredients versus linear PDMS.

Silicone gum/fluid blends provide a high level of substantive conditioning and frizz control while imparting a soft and lubricious feel [4]. There are silicones that are modified, like amodimethicones (amine-functionalized silicones) or alkylmethicones (replacing methyl groups on PDMs with alkyl chains) which are widely used in hair care applications as well. Amodimethicones impart specific benefits like color protection, heat protection, repair, reduced flyways, and deep conditioning.

The above-mentioned silicones are non-water soluble, whereas silicone polyethers are a family of water and/or alcohol soluble materials commonly used in shampoo formulations. They provide light to medium conditioning. In addition to acting as emulsifiers or co-emulsifiers, they can be used as resin modifiers to aid curl retention [2].

Moving Away from Silicones

While silicones have been highly effective hair care ingredients providing both functional and enhanced sensorial benefits, there is a movement away from their use due to a variety of reasons. There are long-term effects of silicone such as causing build-up, greasiness, and scalp accumulation [5]. Furthermore, concerns have been raised about their toxicity and effects on the environment.

The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) assessed the potential environmental effect of cyclic silicones: cyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and cyclopentasiloxane (D5). Based on the evaluation, D4 meets the criteria for identification as a persistent, bio accumulative and toxic (PBT), very persistent, very bioaccumulative (vPvB) substance and D5 meets the criteria for a vPvB substance [6]. After January 31st, 2020, the concentration of D4/D5 in rinse-off cosmetic products placed on the market should be less than 0.1% by weight of either substance. This has now been amended to include cyclohexasiloxane (D6) and is expected to be further restricted to include leave-on products [7].

Linear silicones are also not completely in the clear. They are suspected to be an environmental toxin and to be bioaccumulative. Dimethicone, Dimethicone Copolymer, Polysilicone-15 and other silicones are commonly considered to be microplastics [8,9]. In addition to being non-biodegradable, silicone oils also have an impact on the environment due to their industrial production process which has a high carbon footprint [10].

High performance, Natural and Sustainable Solutions

According to Mintel’s GNPD, between 2016 and 2021 the incidence of “silicone-free” claims for hair care products increased by over 200%. With regulations to control the usage of silicones in hair care products and a growing emphasis on naturality and sustainability, companies are looking for ingredients that serve as silicone alternatives. There is a huge focus on developing efficient and innovative ingredients that offer similar or better functional performance and with a better sensorial profile than silicones. A few ingredient solutions currently offered are highlighted below:

C13-C15 Alkane (plant-derived) is a sustainable natural silicone replacement developed via the fermentation of renewable sugar and grown sustainably without irrigation. This ingredient meets the performance of dimethicone in frizz reduction and color protection. It also matches the performance of amodimethicone in terms of wet/dry combability and provides an excellent sensorial profile. Ethyl Macadamiate is another silicone alternative of macadamia esters. It is biodegradable and provides the same silky, smooth after feel as cyclopentasiloxane [8]. A highly viscous, hydrogenated polyfarnesene presents interesting properties to replace Dimethiconol-based blends [11].

A prime function of silicones is to act as emollients. A vegetable emollient that is readily biodegradable and reduces significant carbon footprint is a perfect ally to protect hair from repeated mechanical stress and perform superior to cyclopentasiloxane [10]. An example is Hydrogenated Olive Oil which is an unsaponifiable squalene from olive oil and hydrogenated castor oil. It is yet another emollient offering to replace silicone and mineral oils that has great application in anti-frizz haircare products [12].

Reduced Silicone Solutions

It is not necessary to exclude all silicone products; cyclic free or synthetic silicones that meet REACH requirements can still be used as alternative solutions. Using low viscosity dimethicone and a mixture of C13-C14 isoparaffin can be considered as a replacement for cyclomethicones delivering a similar sensory profile [7]. Use of terminal hydroxy amino-modified silicone (THA) chemistry provides long-lasting conditioning and protects hair against breakage [13]. As for synthetic offerings, combining quaternary conditioning properties of cetrimonium chloride with a carboxylated silicone provides thermal protection and enhances the manageability of hair, while a complex of cetrimonium chloride with a water-soluble silicone provides great hair care benefits in different formats [7]. A combination of natural oils and a synthetic polymer can enhance and extend the benefits of natural oils to smooth and restore damaged hair and protect and reduce hair damage from different grooming regimens [12].

The industry also offers some unique solutions like quat-free polymeric conditioning additives that can provide multi-functional benefits to hair which are ideal for amodimethicone free formulations. Lastly, to reduce the carbon footprint, manufacturers are cutting down the high use of energy to produce dimethicones of various viscosities by using methanol obtained from biomass instead of fossil fuels [7].

Using Digital Tools to Source Ingredients

In the quest for clean and sustainable ingredients, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is playing a critical role in research and development. Machine learning is a powerful tool that can collect large amounts of data and provide detailed information about ingredient sourcing [11].  AI will be further integrated to explore unmet needs and help screen and identify innovative ingredients for various applications. Companies are also developing apps, using QR codes to trace ingredients, and promote ingredient transparency by providing origin and sustainable properties [11].

Conclusion

Over the last decade, there has been a strong shift in consumer product preferences with emphasis on personal wellbeing and the environment. The cosmetic industry has made great progress in offering many eco-friendly, clean, and sustainable solutions not only to replace silicones but also other ingredients that are currently being challenged. Companies are tasked to continue their efforts in developing eco-friendly and sustainable products that are highly effective in functional and sensorial performance to meet consumer needs.

References

  1. Kostic A, “Silicones in cosmetics and their impact on the environment”, Cos ACTIVE J. 2021;1:34–39
  2. Katie Schaefer, “Silicones in Hair Care: Making Innovative Solutions Possible”, Cosmetics & Toiletries (November,2008)
  3. Megan McIntyre, “Do Silicones Deserve Their Bad Rap? “, Beauty Independent, June 2019
  4. Bethany Johnson, Kevin Murphy and Feifei Lin, “How Silicones Shape the Hair Care Industry: A Review”, Cosmetics & Toiletries (June,2015)
  5. Solvay.com, “How Sulfate and silicone Alternatives Improve the Hair care Industry and Benefit Consumers”
  6. Mojgan Moddaresi, “Regulation Update: Cyclosiloxanes in the EU”, UL Prospector (February ,2018)
  7. Smooth closer: The latest in silicones and silicone alternatives”, Cosmetics Business (November,2021)
  8. SuperZero.com, “What are silicones and why are silicones used in the beauty industry? (April,2021)
  9. Plastic-TheHiddenBeautyIngredients.pdf (beatthemicrobead.org)
  10. “An alternate to silicone for hair care”, Personal Care Magazine (March,2019)
  11. “New generation of emollient showing promising results as a sustainable alternative to viscous silicones in hair care formulations: Seppic”, Cosmetics & Toiletries, Vol.137, No.6 (June 2022)
  12. John Woodruff, “Silicones and Alternatives 2018”, published by SPC2018
  13. Nisaraporn Suthiwangcharoen, Bethany Prime, Beth Johnson, and Dawn Carsten, “Simple and Sensorial Amino-modified silicone protects and revives hair”, Cosmetics & Toiletries, Vol.136, No.2 (February 2021)

 

Mythili Nori has worked in the Personal Care industry for over a decade. Her expertise is in Product Claim Substantiation and Data Science. In her current role at BASF, she is responsible for Physical Claim Substantiation & Sensory testing for Hair & Skin Care. Prior to joining BASF, she spent 5 years at TRI/Princeton as a Senior Research Associate, supporting claim substantiation and fundamental research activities for textile and hair surfaces. She earned a Bachelor of Technology in Chemical Engineering from India and received Master of Science in Chemical Engineering at North Carolina Agriculture & Technical State University focusing on purification of drinking water.

NYSCC Accepting Applications for 2022 Scholarships & Grants

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Deadline for Submissions from Members and Students is June 30, 2022

The New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists (NYSCC) announces that it is accepting applications for seven scholarship and grant programs.  These programs are designed to promote enrichment and advancement in cosmetic science.  Four of these programs are new, and students, members, and institutions are encouraged to apply soon as most of the deadline dates are June 30, 2022.

The expanded NYSCC scholarship and grant offerings this year include:

– Roumelia Alina Inclusion & Diversity Scholarship awarded to an undergraduate or graduate student who exemplify hard work, perseverance, compassion and collaboration in the advancement of Inclusion & Diversity initiatives.

– General Education Scholarship a one-time award for undergraduate and graduate students who wish to pursue a career in cosmetic science.

– Future of Sustainability Scholarship is a new program encouraging undergraduate and graduate students to start thinking about how the industry can address major sustainability challenges.

– The Board Choice Scholarship created to inspire student members to reimagine the future of NYSCC. This new scholarship is the largest given by the chapter and will only be awarded to one lucky undergraduate or graduate student.

– Upskilling Grant for active members who want to take their credentials or professional development to the next level. In this new grant, special consideration will be given to unemployed members who need to obtain skills to help them get back to work.

– Mentee Next Steps Grant is also new and exclusive to NYSCC mentees who need financial support to reach the next milestone in their education and career paths.

– Grant for Educational Institutions awarded to organizations promoting enrichment and advancement of cosmetic science. There are two application deadlines for this grant on July 31st and October 21st.

“We are proud of our scholarship and grant programs and excited to be able to expand its scope and offerings. Under the leadership of Toussaint Jordan, chair of the scholarships and grants committee, and together with the NYSCC board, this year we went the extra mile and not only we created more scholarship and grant opportunities, but we tripled the total amount of dollars to give away! NYSCC is committed to providing financial assistance to ensure students and young professionals across the country have access to quality education that will eventually lead to a successful career in cosmetic science, this is our mission!” said Giorgio Dell’Acqua, Chair, NYSCC.  “We also are thrilled to be able to give back to our members to support and enhance their professional development.”

APPLY HERE

PPARs reemerging as a skin wellness target in cosmetics

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PPARs reemerging as a skin wellness target in cosmetics

Written by Marc Cornell, Mar-Key Consulting LLC

Cosmetics are continuing their marvelous evolution with new scientific findings and breakthrough innovations. Sometimes we need to look back to find the genesis of a current marketing or positioning trend. Take a step back with me to the late 20th century, where a young researcher (MC) was being educated in the biology of wound healing. During this time, I became aware of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). PPAR-alpha expression plays a role in the inflammatory stage of wound healing. Later I learned wound healing shares many biologic pathways with anti-age biology.  Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors is a mouthful, right? Let’s dial it back bit and keep the PPAR focus on our body’s largest organ, the skin.

PPAR’s are ligand inducible transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. The key isoforms of PPARs are notated as (alpha), (beta/delta) and (gamma). These forms can up regulate or down regulate many cellular and metabolic processes (cellular differentiation, proliferation, lipid homeostasis and energy metabolism). These functions are critical to our body and its skin’s immune system, epidermal barrier function and development of pro-inflammatory signals. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are also involved in regulating glucose, lipid homeostasis and modulate mitochondrial function. (1)  It is obvious that regulation of PPAR signaling to various biological systems is an opportunity for medicine and cosmetic science

In some publications, regulation of PPAR signaling have been linked to disease pathogenesis. These ailments have complex causes involving genetic, environmental, and nutritional factors, PPARS are just a part of the pathway. (2) In cosmetic science we are careful to draw the line between drug and cosmetic claims. With that said, there are numerous scientific studies elucidating shared connections between drug and cosmetic active biologic modes of action.

Now we take a partial deep dive on the FAQ’s for PPARS.  From there we will highlight how targeting PPAR’s has been around for some time in cosmetics. More recently these chemistries are trending in a big way as clinical branded cosmetics remerge as part of the wellness positioning.

How can cosmetic science leverage PPARS to facilitate skin wellness? We start our PPAR discussion by looking at the skin barrier function. This area of skin biology is also part of a recent trend towards positioning and the minimization of environmental stressors on the exposome. The exposome is defined as the measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime and how those exposures relate to health.  PPAR activation has been shown to have an important role in skin barrier function by regulating differentiation and lipid synthesis in keratinocytes. (3) This fact fits nicely into homeostasis wellness positioning.

PPAR activation takes place through heterodimerization.  Simply put, you need 2 ligands to come together on the DNA to initiate gene regulation.  PPAR activators are already being used in areas of cosmetic science application.  Botanical extracts have been shown to activate PPAR in the stimulation of collagen in skin (4). There is also evidence that PPARs may be used as an alternative to retinoids in skin care. (5) PPARs have an important effect in keratinocyte homeostasis, suggesting a role in diseases such as psoriasis. (6)   PPAR acts directly to negatively regulate gene expression of proinflammatory genes in a ligand-dependent manner by antagonizing the activities of transcription factors such as members of the NF-kB and AP-1 families. (7).  One very popular cosmetic application is the use of omega 3 fatty acids.  These are popular natural ligands for PPARα receptors and are key to preventing/reducing inflammation.

One critical factor in attempting to utilize pathways linked to PPARs is in the understanding of the up or down regulation of these biochemicals. Typical of any biologic system there is potential for biofeedback, so understanding the pathways and assay methodologies are important. Good news is gene expression and cell culture models now allow the high throughput analysis of materials which may take part in PPAR regulation. This fact and the numerous peer review publications give the cosmetic chemist a boost in the study of PPARs.

In closing I provide just a few key words for continued education on PPARs.

Links between PPAR and:

a) Endocannabinoid receptor system
b) Hyaluronic acid
c) Wound healing
d) Retinoid receptor system
e) UV modulated inflammation
f) Inflamaging
g) Mitochondrial function
h) and MORE!

  1. Ting-Wei Lee, Kuan-Jen Bai, Ting-I Lee, Tze-Fan Chao, Yu-Hsun Kao & Yi-Jen Chen : PPARs modulate cardiac metabolism and mitochondrial function in diabetes Journal of Biomedical Science volume 24, Article number: 5 (2017)
  2. Kersten S, Desvergne B, Wahli W. : Roles of PPARs in health and disease. Nature. 2000; 405: 421–4. NATURE
  3. Su-Hyoun Chon , Ruth Tannahill, Xiang Yao, Michael D Southall, Apostolos Pappas. Keratinocyte differentiation and upregulation of ceramide synthesis induced by an oat lipid extract via the activation of PPAR pathways , Exp Dermatol. 2015 Apr;24 (4):290-5
  4. George P. Majewski1 | Smrita Singh2 | Krzysztof Bojanowski :Olive leaf-derived PPAR agonist complex induces collagen IV synthesis in human skin models, Int J Cosmet Sci. 2021;43:662–676
  5. John Simon Craw, George Majewski: Coding Skin for Care: PPAR Ligands as Retinoid Alternatives and Adjuvants—Cosmetic and Toiletries, Jan 6th, 2022
  6. Emerson de Andrade Lima1 et al : Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists (PPARs): a promising prospect in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis* An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88(6):1029-35.
  7. Yuval Ramot et al, The role of PPAR-mediated signaling in skin biology and pathology: new targets and opportunities for clinical dermatology : Experimental Dermatology, 2015, 24, 245–251

 

Written by Marc Cornell, Mar-Key Consulting LLC

Marc Cornell, BS. is a consultant at Mar-key Consulting LLC where he services the consumer product industry with innovative formulation concepts.  During his thirty-year career he has worked in an R&D role for large (Merck, L’Oreal, Bristol Meyers Squibb, Union Carbide) and medium sized companies (Neostrata, ChemAid Labs, KV Pharmaceutical). For the last ­20 years he has worked primarily on the research and formulation development of “Cosmeceuticals” for various brands (Skinceuticals, Neostrata, Dr. Perricone, Biomedic, Strivectin, and La Roche Posay). In this role he collaborated with researchers in skin biology and clinical testing to design, formulate and test novel cosmetic active delivery vehicles. Marc’s work has been patented and published in peer review journals and trade publications.

 

NYSCC Suppliers’ Day 2022 Succeeds On All Levels

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Leading Ingredients & Formulations Event in North America Showcases Sustainability & Science to Energized Strong Attendance

The New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists (NYSCC) 43rd Annual Suppliers’ Day came to a successful conclusion at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York. Showcasing the latest raw materials, ingredients, formulations and technical innovations the event attracted 7805 attendees representing 55 countries. The exhibit floor had 448 exhibitors with a 17% increase in net square footage space including near 100 new exhibitors and dozens of new product announcements.

“The enthusiasm and excitement for Suppliers’ Day was evident throughout the Javits Center.  Everyone was eager to meet in person and get back to business as well as learn about the latest industry trends and advancements,” said Giorgio Dell”Acqua, Chair of NYSCC.  “It truly was the destination for ‘Science & Sustainable Sourcing Solutions!’”

The high quality attendance and engagement as well as focus on sustainability at Suppliers’ Day was also praised by exhibitors. “I have been attending Suppliers’ Day for over 35 years, this one is special, to finally make connections in person.  Also, there is so much innovation in the industry now and every supplier and booth is thinking about sustainability, it is a big push in the industry and consumers are pushing for it as much as the brands,” said Scott  Tuchinsky, Business Head Consumer Care, North America, CRODA.

Added Neslihan Utkan, Business Director, Consumer Care, Clariant, “Attendance has been great this year and Suppliers’ Day is an important platform for seeing where the industry is heading.  It is going to be all about being natural, green and sustainable.”

A highlight of day two was a special Keynote presentation by Noah Rosenblatt, President, North America, and Space NK being interviewed by Kelly Kovack, Founder and CEO, BeautyMatter.  The conversation touched upon consumers’ return to in-store shopping in terms of experience, convenience and connection as online sales growth returns to a pre-pandemic trajectory.

Noah also discussed how ingredient-led trends are driving sales and that consumers are shopping by ingredient just as much as they are searching for an ingredient.  “We’re seeing the ingredient-led trend continue to show up regularly in our stores and product selection and curation,” said Noah Rosenblatt. “Hyaluronic acid to CBD, vitamin C, and this year, niacinamide is everywhere.”

The educational offerings at Suppliers’ Day were also well received by attendees.  With more than 60 hours of programming, there was something for everyone in the industry.  The Presentation Theater boasted standing room only sessions that included the Discover Sustainability, World of Chemistry, IBA Regulatory & Compliance Update and the Innovations from the Exhibit Floor that highlighted some of the dozens of new products announcements that were made at the event.

Digital Age of Beauty returned with presentations on digital tools and innovative technologies that influence product development, including AI, VR and a presentation on “The Good Face App – Where Consumers Drive R&D.”  Microbiome: Inside Out Beauty featured the Skin Trust Club, a unique skin health tracking app powered by Labskin and included a talk by Dr. Elsa Jungman of ELSI Skin Health, the first microbiome-friendly US consumer brand.  The INDIE 360 program covered every angle of launching and sustaining a brand and featured founders Dr. Brent Ridge, Beekman 1802 and Stephanie Lee, of Selfmade.

Two advanced courses were specifically curated by the NYSCC Scientific Advisory Committee and took deep dives into In-vitro Modeling to Predict Clinical Outcome as well as Natural Colorants.  The Lunch & Learn on Hair: Textured, Curly, Straight? What You Need to Know! was standing room only and PCPC and IKW presented their popular class on Essential Elements of Cosmetic Regulation, Safety Assessment, and Quality Assurance.  For the first time, there was a Poster Presentation Pavilion with scheduled session times with the authors for attendees to learn more about skin care, clean and green, CBD, sustainability and other relevant topics.

The Future Chemists Workshop hosted college students from 16 universities/colleges across the country including University of Toledo in Ohio, Florida International University, Rutgers University in New Jersey and New York’s Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT). and provided real world experience of working as a bench chemist in a lab.  The NYSCC Mentorship Committee hosted a lunch meet up and Information Session for Mentors and Mentees.

After the first night of the show, the NYSCC Awards Night Ceremony took place at SONY HALL.  The eight finalists of the CEW Supplier’s Beauty Creators Award:  Ingredients & Formulation were announced and include: BASF Corporation: Seanactiv – quickly rejuvenate the eye contour; Clariant Corporation: Berashades; Croda Inc.: ChromaPur; Croda Inc.: Nutrinvent Balance; Geltor, Inc.: Elastapure®; IFF/Lucas Meyer Cosmetics: Anti-Glyc-Aging™ Zinc Screen; Silab Inc.: PEPTILIUM®; and Symrise, Inc.: SymHair® Thermo – 100% natural heat protection for hair care, powered by mushrooms. The winner will be announced at the CEW Winner’s Celebration on November 11, 2022.

NYSCC also hosted a People’s Choice Award where attendees casted their vote for the most innovative brand in ingredients, delivery, branding/packaging in the INDIE 360 Pavilion.  The curated companies that participated included: CandaScent Labs, Dr Lili Fan Probiotic Skincare, High on Love, I-on Skincare, Lamik Beauty, Malibu Apothecary, Onekind, PRIORI Adaptive Skincare, Redmint, Shielded Beauty, Sunrise Session by Nohbo, Inc., and Touch in Sol.

The People’s Choice Award winner was Sunrise Session, a single-use, waste-free self-care that disappears and leaves no trace behind. “Sunrise Session had an amazing first time at Suppliers’ Day,” said Benjamin Stern, Founder & CEO, Nohbo, Inc., who was present at the champagne reception to accept the NYSCC Suppliers’ Day People’s Choice Award.  “It is exciting to be recognized as a leading brand in sustainability and to be at such a valuable event for chemists.”

Virtual Suppliers’ Day launched on Monday, May 9th attracting hundreds of new attendees and providing the on-site attendees at the Javits Center a chance to revisit with exhibitors or catch content they may have missed during show days.  This WEEK OF BEAUTY Live & Virtual hybrid event reached 8,000 participants from around the globe.

Plans are already underway for the 2023 NYSCC Suppliers’ Day taking place May 2-3, again at the Javits Center, with more than 80% exhibitors already resigned.  “I am looking forward to working closely with our members and SCC as well as with the Suppliers’ Day team in expanding our industry and media partnerships to create the best global ingredients event for the industry, by the industry,” said Stacey House, Chair-Elect, NYSCC. “The past few years have been challenging, I also want to focus on bridging wellness and eco-consciousness into areas of the beauty and personal care industry.”

Natural Ingredients in Cosmetics

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Natural ingredients offer a myriad of possibilities for developing effective cosmetic products. Their popularity has greatly increased over the past two decades in part due to a major shift in public opinion about the environment, human health, and wellbeing. Plant ingredients have been shown to be effective treatments of the skin for a number of conditions including erythema, hyperpigmentation, photoaging, photocarcinogenesis, and photoimmunosuppression. Nowadays, botanical ingredients are found in almost every type of cosmetic product for the skin. In addition to plants, minerals are also natural ingredients. Some of the most common ones found in modern-day cosmetic products consist of iron oxides, zinc oxide, and titanium oxide, which are mostly used in sunscreen formulations.

Historical Perspective of Natural Ingredients in Cosmetics

Natural ingredients have been used in cosmetic products since antiquity. The early Egyptians were renowned for their makeup preparations and other cosmetic ingredients used to cleanse and scent the body. The most common cosmetic potions consisted of eye paints, facial paints, oils, and solid fats (ointments) [1]. As an example, kohl is a paste/powder that was commonly used as eye shadow and is reported to have been made with galena ore, which contains lead sulfide. A paste made from malachite, a green ore of copper, was also used to color the eyes of Egyptians. Some of these ingredients probably caused adverse reactions, or could have led to serious disease after prolonged use.

Hair and nail dyeing in ancient Egypt was achieved using henna, which was extracted from the plant Lawsonia inermis, also known as the Egyptian privet. Henna was also popular in ancient India and China as a hair dyeing agent. In India, henna was also used to paint designs on the hands and feet in the art known as mehndi [2]. The early Egyptians also used fats and oils to apply to skin and hair, protecting them from the powerful sun rays and arid climate. The Egyptians were also very astute on the use of fragrances. They used many different types of herbs and oils, such as aloe, chamomile, lavender, myrrh, olive oil, peppermint, sesame oil, and thyme [3].

Turmeric, a traditional Indian spice from the root of Curcuma longa, was commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine as a therapeutic agent. It contains curcumin, which has anti-inflammatory properties. In recent years, turmeric has become an extremely popular cosmetic ingredient for skin care preparations. In traditional Chinese culture, skin was treated oils and herbs. Panax ginseng is one of the most popular ingredients in ancient herbal therapy, and is still widely used today. Rice powder was also popular and used to paint the face, serving as a form of makeup that provided a whitish appearance and had the benefit of removing excessive oils. The use of nail polish dates back to ancient China, using egg whites, flowers, and beeswax [4]. Unfortunately, not all members of society were permitted to paint their nails. It was reserved for royals, who painted their nails gold and silver, and other members of the upper echelon of society.

Natural ingredients were also used in cosmetics in other periods of history as well. In biblical times, the Hebrews used oils obtained from various plant and animal sources as emollients to protect the skin from the arid environment and intense solar radiation. In addition, red ochre (an iron oxide) was used for painting the lips, ash and beeswax for painting the nails, and herbal perfumes were applied to the skin and clothing [5]. During the early Roman Empire, Pliny the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus), who was a prolific author, naturalist, and philosopher, wrote about the control of perspiration using a mixture of rue, rose oil, and aloe vera [6].

In the western tradition, the use of natural ingredients in cosmetics continued through the Middle Ages and Renaissance all the way to the 19th century, although the overall use of cosmetics fluctuated throughout history most likely due to sociological and economic factors. Curiously, at the dawn of the 20th century, color cosmetics were not very popular in western societies, and even frowned upon for women to wear in public. In the United States and many other western cultures, this attitude began to change significantly as movie stars began wearing makeup products in Hollywood films. During this period, there was a flurry of activity in the development of highly functional synthetic ingredients that enjoyed widespread use in cosmetic products. However, the most recent natural ingredient movement began to take place in the late 1990s and early 2000s as the population became more concerned with health, wellbeing, and global environmental conditions.

Botanical Ingredients

The increasing awareness of the health benefits of phytochemicals has led to a transformation in the cosmetic industry [7]. The recent explosion of the use of herbal ingredients in cosmetic products began with ingredients that offered improvement in the physiological condition of the skin by treatment with formulas containing plant ingredients [8]. This movement evolved to include a greater effort to replace conventional synthetic ingredients that carried other functions in the formula, such as rheology modifiers, emollients, cleansing agents, etc. [9]. Today, there are even some forms of cosmetic packaging that are based on natural or naturally derived ingredients.

There are numerous plant ingredients that are used in cosmetic products for their cosmeceutical properties. Some of the most common ingredients include Aloe vera, Camellia sinensis (tea polyphenols), Capparis spinosa flower buds, Culcitium reflexum H.B.K. leaf, Curcuma longa (curcumin), French maritime pine bark (pycnogenol) Gingko biloba, pomegranate fruit, red orange, Sanguisorba officinalis L. root, Sedum telephium L. leaf, and Silybum marianum (Silymarin). Extracts of natural products contain polyphenols and other phytonutrients that have beneficial effects for the skin. Plants evolved to produce these ingredients to protect themselves from environmental insults, including harmful UV radiation.

Many botanicals have been used for millennia in traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurveda. Nowadays, there is a flurry of activity in the skin care market with similar types of ingredients, due to a growing body of scientific evidence demonstrating their utility as skin therapeutic agents. Among other things, botanical ingredients have shown promise as anti-inflammatories for skin to treat rosacea, preventative agents against melanoma, bioactives for the treatment of skin aging, and protective agents against UV-induced immunosuppression and photocarcinogenesis [10].

Incorporating plant ingredients into cosmetics can also present challenges to the formulator in terms of stability and delivery [11]. For this reason, there have been many efforts focused on developing carrier systems for botanical ingredients [10, 12]. Most of these carriers are emulsions, vesicular systems, or lipid particulate systems. Emulsions for this type of application usually are microemulsions, nanoemulsions, micro-nanoemulsions, multilayer emulsions, or Pickering emulsions. Common vesicular systems consist of liposomes, ethosomes, phytosomes, and transferosomes. The two most popular lipid particulate systems are solid-lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers.

Polysaccharide Ingredients

Polysaccharides from many natural sources are used in cosmetics. They are often added to formulas as rheology modifiers, but may also be used for a variety of other functions, such as providing moisture to the skin or enhancing the styling properties of hair. The most common polysaccharides found in cosmetic products are agar, alginate, carrageenan, derivatives of cellulose (e.g., hydroxyethylcellulose), chitin, chitosan, dextrin, guar gum derivatives, gum arabic, hyaluronic acid, pectins, starch derivatives, and xanthan gum. In addition to the applications already mentioned, polysaccharides are also found in masks and shampoos/body washes (coacervate agent). A number of different polysaccharides may also be included in personal care products for their antibacterial, antiviral, anticoagulant, anticancer, antioxidant, and immunomodulating activity [13]. Overall, they have a long and safe history of use in cosmetic products.

Essential Oils

Essential oils enjoy widespread utility in cosmetic products due to their pleasant odor and biological activity [14-16]. They are highly concentrated liquid mixtures of small molecules (mostly aromatic compounds, terpenes, and terpenoids) extracted from the bark, buds, flowers, fruits, leaves, rhizomes, roots, and seeds of plants [14]. Some of the most common essential oils found in cosmetic products are citronellol, citrus, eucalyptus, geraniol, lavender, limonene, linalool, and tea tree [16]. If formulated at low concentrations, essential oils are relatively safe. However, at higher concentrations their use may result in skin sensitivity reactions and even the development of allergies [15]. In addition to their aromatic characteristics, essential oils have analgesic, antibiotic, and antiviral properties. For this reason, there is a great deal of interest in aroma therapy and its positive health benefits.

Toxicological Considerations

There is some concern about the safety and toxicology of natural ingredients. This mostly stems from the presence of ingredients that are not listed on the labels of cosmetic products. For example, citral, farnesol, limonene, and limanol—fragrance compounds present in many natural ingredient products—can illicit allergic reactions [17]. Furthermore, there could be many molecules in the formula that are only listed as one ingredient. On the other hand, it has been argued that exposure to natural toxic substances in personal care products is probably not the principal route of exposure. Rather, direct exposure to vegetation and agricultural crops is considered the most dominant pathway [18]. Skin sensitization is another concern with the use of botanical ingredients [19]. As an example, the Feverfew plant (Tanacetum parthenium), known for its anti-inflammatory properties, contains parthenolide, which is a potent skin sensitization agent. Therefore, being able to produce parthenolide-free bioactives is a key challenge to provide a non-sensitizing product for skin care [20, 21].

Concluding Remarks

Natural ingredients have a long history in cosmetics products. Overall, there has been a great deal of renewed interest in their inclusion in contemporary personal care formulas. Combined with modern analytical and process technology, today’s cosmetic chemist has the opportunity to participate in the large-scale transformation of the personal care industry.

 

References

  1. Lucas, A., Cosmetics, perfumes, and incense in ancient Egypt. J Egypt Arch, 1930. 16(1/2): p. 41-53.
  2. Nayak, M. and V. Ligade, History of cosmetics in Egypt, India, and China. J Cosmet Sci, 2021. 72: p. 432-441.
  3. Chaudhri, S. and N. Jain, History of cosmetics. Asian J Pharm, 2009. 3(3): p. 164-167.
  4. Madnani, N. and K. Khan, Nail cosmetics. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol, 2012. 78: p. 309-317.
  5. Parish, L. and J. Crissey, Cosmetics: A historical review. Clin Dermatol, 1988. 6(3): p. 1-4.
  6. Bostock, J. and H. Riley, Rue: eighty-four remedies, in Remedies derived from the garden plants. 1855, Taylor and Francis: London, UK.
  7. Dini, I. and S. Laneri, The new challenge of green cosmetics: natural food ingredients for cosmetic formulations. Molecules, 2021. 26: p. 3921.
  8. González-Minero, F. and L. Bravo-Díaz, The use of plants in skin-care products, cosmetics, and fragrances: Past and present. Cosmetics, 2018. 5: p. 50.
  9. Bom, S., M. Fitas, A. Martins, P. Pinto, H. Ribeiro, and J. Marto, Replacing synthetic ingredients by sustainable natural alternatives: A case study using topical O/W emulsions. Molecules, 2020. 25: p. 4887.
  10. McMullen, R., Antioxidants and the Skin. 2nd ed. 2019, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  11. Hoang, H., J. Moon, and Y. Lee, Natural antioxidants from plant extracts in skincare cosmetics: recent applications, challenges, and perspectives. Cosmetics, 2021. 8: p. 106.
  12. Yang, S., L. Liu, J. Han, and Y. Tang, Encapsulating plant ingredients for dermocosmetic application: An updated review of delivery systems and characterization techniques. Int J Cosmet Sci, 2020. 42: p. 16-28.
  13. Ahsan, H., The significance of complex polysaccharides in personal care formulations. J Carbohydr Chem, 2019. 38: p. 213-233.
  14. Abate, L., A. Bachheti, R. Kumar Bachheti, A. Husen, G. M, and D. Pandey, Potential role of forest-based plants in essential oil production: An approach to cosmetic and personal health care applications, in Non-Timber Forest Products: Food, Healthcare and Industrial Applications, A. Husen, R. Kumar Bachheti, and A. Bachheti, Editors. 2021, Sprinter Nature: Cham, Switzerland. p. 1-18.
  15. Sarkic, A. and I. Stappen, Essential oils and their single compounds in cosmetics—A critical review. Cosmetics, 2018. 5: p. 11.
  16. Sharmeen, J., F. Mahomoodally, G. Zengin, and F. Maggi, Essential oils as natural sources of fragrance compounds for cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Molecules, 2021. 26: p. 666.
  17. Klaschka, U., Natural personal care products—analysis of ingredient lists and legal situation. Environ Sci Eur, 2016. 28: p. 8.
  18. Bucheli, T., B. Strobel, and H. Hansen, Personal care products are only one of many exposure routes of natural toxic substances to humans and the environment Cosmetics, 2018. 5: p. 10.
  19. Puginier, M., A. Roso, H. Groux, C. Gerbeix, and F. Cottrez, Strategy to avoid skin sensitization: application to botanical cosmetic ingredients. Cosmetics, 2022. 9(2): p. 40.
  20. Koganov, M., Parthenolide free bioactive ingredients from Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) and processes for their production and use. U.S. Patent No. 7,537,791. 2009.
  21. Sur, R., K. Martin, F. Liebel, P. Lyte, S. Shapiro, and M. Southall, Anti-inflammatory activity of parthenolide-depleted Feverfew (Tancetum parthenium). Inflammopharmacology, 2009. 17(1): p. 42-49.

 

NYSCC & ACS “Careers in Cosmetic Science” Panel at St. John’s University

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On April 30, a NYSCC delegation composed of Giorgio Dell’Acqua, Nutrafol and 2022 NYSCC Chair; Amber Evans, Morocconoil and NYSCC Scientific Committee; Sue Feng, ET Brown; Toussaint Jordan, L’Oreal and NYSCC Scholarship Chair; and Tao Zheng, Estee Lauder, and SCC Scientific Committee; visited St John’s University in Queens, NY for an event jointly organized by the NYSCC and the New York section of the American Chemical Society (ACS). The event, “Careers in Cosmetic Science,” was attended by St. John’s students majoring in chemistry and biology. The NYSCC delegation presented on current trends in Personal Care and Cosmetic Science as well as gave tips and advice on careers in the industry during this interactive panel discussion.

The NYSCC is actively engaged in providing Cosmetic Science education and in facilitating to any student and young professionals access to the association and the Beauty and Personal Care industry. NYSCC  plans to organize more educational panels on “Careers in Cosmetic Science” in the near future targeting local colleges to increase awareness and access to our industry.

NYSCC Suppliers’ Day Announces Noah Rosenblatt, President, Space NK, INDIE 360° Keynote

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INDIE 360° Pavilion Spotlights Indie Companies Curated by Access Beauty Insiders at the Leading Beauty & Personal Care Ingredients and Formulation Event held May 3 & 4

(New York, NY, April 2022)—NYSCC (New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists) is pleased to announce that Noah Rosenblatt, President of North America at Space NK will address attendees during a one-on-one fireside chat on Wednesday, May 4th at 9:00 am during Suppliers’ Day at the Javits Center in New York.  This fireside chat, “Space NK: Bridging High Street to Main Street,” will be moderated by Kelly Kovack, Founder & CEO of BeautyMatter. Topics covered will address a multitude of subject matters including consumer migration from cities to small towns and how that impacts today’s retail landscape, to ingredient transparency and consumer shopping behavior vis-à-vis ingredients. Beauty founders and the supplier community will find the conversation relevant and insightful.

INDIE 360° at Suppliers’ Day is an immersive educational and sourcing experience providing up and coming indie brands with insight, information and resources needed to succeed. The program was created to foster connections between indie brands and suppliers and allow for open communication as well as to spotlight newer to market companies who are utilizing unique ingredients or combination of ingredients. The INDIE 360°  program is moderated and chaired by Luciana Coutinho with the pavilion participants curated by Daniela Ciocan, Access Beauty Insiders.

“We are thrilled to offer this fireside chat as part of the INDIE 360° program,” said Giorgio Dell’Acqua, Chair, NYSCC.  “Noah has a proven track record of discovering and nurturing founder brands as well as connecting with consumers. His conversation with Kelly will be a highlight of our event and inspire and engage our attendees.”

Rosenblatt joined Space NK in 2015, bringing more than eight years of beauty experience with prior roles at LVMH and 20 years of retail industry experience working with numerous emerging brands looking to expand their footprint in the US. Throughout his tenure Noah has built meaningful relationships with brands and founders alike to ensure Space NK continues to be relevant in the marketplace.  From long term partners to newer developed relationships, under his leadership nearly 50 brands are part of the Space NK wholesale portfolio including By Terry, Chantecaille, Tata Harper, Natura Bisse, Vintners Daughter, Aesop, Diptyque and Boy Smells.

A half-day INDIE 360° educational program will follow the fireside chat on May 4th and feature a presentation from BeautyStreams on “What’s Happening in the INDIE Market? Trends & Forecasts;” followed by a “Panel of Founders,” from entrepreneurial companies led by Deanna Utroske of Beauty Insiders.  There will also be timely topics discussions on ”The Storm Continues: Beauty Industry Supply Chain Update and Outlook presented by IBA;” “Leveraging Corporate Accelerators to Spur Greater Inclusion in Personal Care;” and “Advertising 101: Best Practices for Marketing Ingredient/Product Benefits.”

The INDIE 360° Pavilion on the exhibit floor highlights fresh ideas and concepts from select companies who are utilizing unique combinations of ingredients and novel formulations.  Companies participating include CandaScent Labs, Dr Lili Fan Probiotic Skincare, High on Love, I-on Skincare, Lamik Beauty, Malibu Apothecary, Onekind, PRIORI Adaptive Skincare, Redmint, Shielded Beauty, Sunrise Session, and Touch in Sol.

Show attendees will be able to meet with the founders of these companies and vote for the ‘PEOPLE’S CHOICE AWARD’ with the winner being announced on Wednesday, May 4th over a champagne reception starting at 3 p.m.

The INDIE 360°  Program at Suppliers’ Day was made possible by the support of BASF, Grant Industries, Lubrizol, luluble, and TRI-K.

Suppliers’ Day is the NYSCC flagship event and attracts participants working in R&D and product development for the biggest brand manufacturers in beauty and personal care as well as emerging independents.  Additional educational programs offered this year will cover microbiome, natural colorants, in-vitro modeling, cosmetic regulations, safety assessment & quality assurance, along with “Digital Age of Beauty,” “Discover Sustainability,” “World of Chemistry,” and “Hair: Textured, Curly, Straight?” programs and a “Regulatory Update” session. Future Chemists Workshop, Mentorship Lunch Mixer, and the SCC/NYSCC Co-sponsored Career Development Day will be held in support of young professionals in the industry. The NYSCC Industry Awards Night will take place on May 3rd at SONY Hall and feature the announcement of the finalists of the CEW Supplier’s Beauty Creators Award.