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A Journey into Color Cosmetics and Lip Product Development

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Introduction

The birth of color cosmetics is said to be traced back all the way to Mesopotamia over 5000 years ago where gems and semi-precious gems were ground up and applied to both the lips and the eyelids. In 4000 BCE, Egyptian women would apply Mesdement, a dark grey ore of lead, Galena chemically known as Lead Sulfide, and Malachite (bright blue green paste of Copper minerals) to color their faces for color. They also extracted color from seaweed, Iodine, and beetles to further add to their makeup palette. (1) Somewhere around 3000BCE women in in Greece applied a paste to their face consisting of white chalk, or lead, mixed in with crushed fruits such as Mulberries. They also used lipsticks comprised of clays mixed with red Iron.(1) During the Renaissance Era it was recorded that women use Arsenic in their face powders to replace lead and it wasn’t until the early 1800s that both of these were replaced by what is commonly known today as Zinc Oxide. In 1894 we saw the birth of what is known today as the PCPC, or Personal Care Products Council. Soon thereafter and beginning in the 1900’s the world saw a rapid increase in popularity of color cosmetics as well as the conception of many cosmetic companies commonly known today such as L’Oreal, Max Factor, Avon, and Maybelline to name a few. With this surge came new product forms such as hair dye, mascara, the first liquid nail polish, the powder compact, and in 1928, the very first lip gloss. In the 1940’s leg makeup was developed out of a need of necessity to fulfill the shortage in stockings due to World War II. Over the course of the next 60-70 years the beauty industry would experience a rapid growth spurt in not just technology but also in regulatory bodies that formed the very foundation for what our industry is today.

Color Ingredients

When we speak of color cosmetic formulations, the primary desired end benefit of these products is the same as it was thousands of years ago and that is to impart color to a part of the face to enhance one’s beauty and feel good about oneself. Whether it be a lipstick, foundation, concealer, eye shadow or pressed powder, the color additives are the main constituent and the base formula is what delivers the color and differentiates the product form. These color additives typically consist of pigments, lakes, dyes, and mica and their differences are explained below:

Pigments– Insoluble particles that impart a color to a product. Inorganic pigments are derived from minerals and have good stability to heat and light. Organic pigments, by nature, are carbon based and tend to have a brighter appearance to them. Commonly, pigments are often surface treated and sold in dispersions of various esters and oils to facilitate ease of use in manufacturing and ensure homogeneity of the color.

Lakes– Produced through precipitation of FD&C soluble dyes with metallic salts such as Aluminum salts. Lakes are useful to extend the color range of a shade palette. These ingredients are often surface treated and sold in dispersions of various esters and oils to facilitate ease of use in manufacturing

Dyes-Predominantly water-soluble, these ingredients are used in skin care, body care, fine fragrance, hair care, and color cosmetics. There are some dyes that are oil soluble as well.

Mica– A name given to a group of silicate materials that are used to add shimmer and sparkle

 

Even though all the ingredients above can be used across the broad category of color cosmetics from eye shadow and pressed powders to lipsticks and foundations, for the purposes of this article we will focus solely on the formulation of lipsticks and liquid lip products.

Physiology of the Lips

The physiology of the lips plays a key role when developing lip products. By nature, the lips are thinner than the skin on the rest of your body and therefore are more sensitive to changes in temperature and texture of a product. Therefore, comfortability and wear are 2 key product parameters that must be properly balanced during development. The lips also do not have hair follicles or oil glands and as a result of this are more prone to drying out especially in the winter months or in low humidity climates. As a result of this, key benefit claims such as hydration and intense moisturization are common for this product type. Finally, the lips do not contain melanocytes found in the skin and as such the color from the lips comes from the blood vessels directly under the surface of the lips.

During aging the lips begin to undergo biological changes like that around other parts of the face and body. The shape of the lips begins to become narrower and longer. They begin to lose volume and color overtime making them appear paler and less vibrant in color and the lines on the lip surface begin to deepen often causing the unwanted side effect of bleeding and feathering. Furthermore, they often present themselves with an unsmooth color tone and appearance.

Environmental exposure can also cause premature aging and thinning of the lips. Chronic UV exposure causes a breakdown in the collagen making the lips appear less full and voluminous. Dehydration from extreme weather conditions or poor health habits can lead to premature and undesirable chafing while exposure to environmental pollutants, i.e., free radicals, and smoking can lead to premature lip lines above the top lip.

Lip Product Formulation

Given the sensitivity of the lips and the desire to keep them young and vibrant looking there are multiple lip products out on the market today each with their own unique benefits and performance. Typically, colored lip products are found in 4 distinct anhydrous forms:

  1. Lipsticks
  2. Liquid Lipsticks
  3. Lip Gloss
  4. Lip Balms

Traditional lip formulations are composed of emollients, oils, waxes, and colorants with the ingredient ranges varying to deliver a stick or liquid format. Emollients/natural oils such Castor Oil, Lanolin, Shea Butter, are primarily used to help disperse colorants, while providing moisture and smooth application. Structuring agents such as Ozokerite, Polyethylene, and Carnauba and gellants are often used to give the sticks rigidity and stability while film formers are often utilized to improve the transfer resistance and wear properties. Benefit ingredients such as vitamins, natural oils, Hyaluronic acid, fragrance, etc. can all be added as well based on the target audience and desired claims.

In terms of finish, lip products typically are found in multiple styles ranging from matte, satin, pearl and shine with sheer to full coverage levels. From a performance perspective, today’s products are a great evolution to those from a century ago offering intense, continuous hydration, waterproof and transfer proof properties, SPF protection, and even all-day long wear.

Conclusion

Over the years the line between color cosmetics and skin care has become less defined. While the primary function of a color cosmetic is to provide color to the face, lips and eyes, the formulas themselves have become more technologically advanced and multi-faceted. Today’s products offer the consumer benefits beyond color such as anti-aging (wrinkle reduction), sun protection, anti-pollution, reduction of oily and acnegenic skin, minimization of scars, and even  tattoo and hyperpigmentation coverage. Additionally, companies continue to innovate in new color cosmetic product forms and test methodologies to deliver aesthetically pleasing, high performance products. For certain, this is a space that will continue to not only innovate but also adapt to today’s complex global challenges while pivoting to consumer needs for years to come!

References

  1. https://cosmeticsinfo.org/Ancient-history-cosmetics

 

Authors

 

Peter Konish has been in the industry for 25 years and is currently the Director of the Lip Category, Product Development and Innovation for Coty. Prior to this, he was the Global Director of Technical Operations in the Skin Health division of Johnson and Johnson. In this role Peter was responsible for Process Development, Packaging Development, and External Development/Innovation. Before moving to Technical operations, Peter spent 13 years at NeoStrata in Product Development overseeing the development of numerous Anti-Aging, Prestige Beauty, and Dermatological skin and body care. Peter also spent 9 years at L’Oreal in its Fine Fragrance division working on such brands as Ralph Lauren and Kiehl’s. Peter has a background in polymer chemistry, he has co-authored numerous book chapters and scientific publications, and has been an industry speaker at SCC events and annual AAD meetings.

 

 

Jeanine Smith has been in the industry for 19 years with her core focus in color cosmetics.  She is currently the Senior Manager of the Lip Category at Coty.  Prior to joining Coty, Jeanine was a Senior Manager at Avon Products where she worked in product development for the Eye, Nail and Lip categories.

 

NYSCC LAUNCHES SUPPLIERS’ DAY AT HOME LIVE WEEK OF BEAUTY

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NYSCC LAUNCHES SUPPLIERS’ DAY AT HOME LIVE WEEK OF BEAUTY

Virtual Event for the Global Ingredients Industry Takes Place

Sept. 28-Oct. 2 2020

The New York Society of Cosmetics Chemists (NYSCC) announces the launch of Suppliers’ Day At Home Live Week Of Beauty featuring education, engagement, new products, awards and more for the beauty and personal care industry.    Taking place online from September 28 through October 2, 2020, Suppliers’ Day At Home Live will showcase the Revolutionary Disruptors that have defined 2020, including: the impact of COVID in beauty/personal care, the pivots many made to home care formulations, trends that have started due to the pandemic or have continued through it, and a global view of the future with sights on 2021.

In conjunction with leading industry partners and associations, Suppliers’ Day At Home Live will offer the most intensive week long educational program for the North American beauty and personal care industry sector. The unique conference program includes:

  • SCC CEP: Essential Cosmetic Raw Materials
  • CEW Supplier’s Award: Ingredients & Formulation Finalists Forum
  • HAPPI’s Anti-Aging
  • INDIE 360 with CosmeticsDesign.com, ICMAD and more
  • Personal Care Magazine’s World of Chemistry
  • FUTURE CHEMISTS WORKSHOP Series: “90 Day Survival Guide for the Future Cosmetic Chemist”

On September 30th and October 1st, Suppliers’ Day At Home Live will also present an interactive digital exhibit floor experience that includes “live chat” sessions with more than 450 global companies offering new ingredients, raw materials, solutions and technologies. A virtual ribbon cutting ceremony with NYSCC Chairman, Giorgino Macalino, will kick off the two-day Suppliers’ Day virtual trade show. The winner of the CEW Supplier’s Award: Ingredients & Formulation will also be announced on September 30th during a virtual cocktail party.  On both days, the ‘Main Stage” will feature video bites from select exhibitors talking about their ingredients, solutions and innovations as well as 2020 achievements.

“Although we cannot be together in person this year for our annual Suppliers’ Day, NYSCC wanted to bring the industry together for an immersive educational event and celebrate all things beauty.  Now more than ever it is important for us to stay connected and to help cosmetic chemists and the entire beauty and personal care community be as successful as possible in this ever-changing business and personal environment,” said Giorgino Macalino, Chairman, NYSCC.

CEW Announces Finalists of the Supplier’s Award in its Prestigious Beauty Awards Program

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NYSCC Sponsored Award Recognizes Innovations in Ingredients and Formulation

(New York, NY, August 2020)—CEW has announced the six finalists of the Supplier’s Award: Ingredients & Formulation, part of its prestigious Beauty Awards. Sponsored by New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists  (NYSCC), the award category recognizes the role that ingredients, formulation and new technology plays in successful product launches.

The 2020 CEW Supplier’s Award: Ingredients & Formulation finalists are:

-Ashland Inc.: Mineral-Based Sun Stick SPF 50 – a convenient mineral-based stick formula with high SPF and a smooth glide that rubs in easily.

-BASF Corporation: Rambuvital™ – organic rambutan fruit seed extract protects scalp and hair.

-CARGILL BEAUTY: FiberDesign™ Sensation – a new texturizer and emulsion stabilizer inspired by the upcycling movement

-Croda Inc:  Solaveil™ XTP-2 – a silica coated, alumina-free powder variant of the Solaveil SpeXtra range.

-Elementis Specialty: BENTONE(R) LUXE Natural Formulation Enabler – an amazing multifunctional ingredient that creates interesting sensorial formula.

-Grant Industries Inc.: GRANSENSE™ TC-8X  – a series of next generation elastomer gels designed for new formulating possibilities.

 

The finalists were selected from more than 40 submissions that were reviewed and voted upon by a curated panel of judges that included leading beauty and personal care brands including members of the NYSCC Program Committees. The judges were: Lauren Alciati, Glossier; Eileen Kim, Chanel; Theresa Phamduy, L’Oreal; Mike Wong, EOS Products; and Tao Zheng, The Estee Lauder Companies.

The winner of the CEW Supplier’s Award will be announced in advance during the Suppliers’ Day  “At Home Live” Week of Beauty on September 30th.  The Supplier’s Award winner will also be acknowledged at the CEW Beauty Awards presentation on November 13th along with reveal of the other “Best in Beauty” category winners.

Prior to the winner of the CEW Supplier’s Award being announced on September 30th, the finalists will participate in virtual panel moderated by a leading beauty editor during the Suppliers’ Day “At Home Live” Week of Beauty.

“Despite a year full of such uncertainty and challenges, what doesn’t stop is innovation. These ingredients and formulations as well as all the submissions are testament to the ingenuity of cosmetic science and reinforces its impact in product development and creating sought after and lasting brands,” said Giorgino Macalino, Chairman, NYSCC.

The NYSCC Suppliers’ Day “At Home Live” Week of Beauty starting on Monday, September 28th and continuing until Friday, October 2nd, will be a virtual week of beauty and personal care industry education, engagement, new product announcements, awards, and more.  For more information visit www.nyscc.org/suppliers-day.

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About New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists (NYSCC)

Dedicated to the advancement of cosmetic science, the New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists, www.nyscc.org, strives to increase and disseminate scientific information through meetings and publications. By promoting research in cosmetic science and industry, and by setting high ethical, professional and educational standards, we reach our goal of improving the qualifications of cosmetic scientists. Our mission is to further the interests and recognition of cosmetic scientists while maintaining the confidence of the public in the cosmetic and toiletries industry. The NYSCC Suppliers’ Day in New York City, is the leading North American event for beauty ingredients, formulations, and delivery innovations.  For more information visit: www.nyscc.org

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suppliers’ Day 2021 will be held May 4-5 in the Javits Center in NYC

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As you are aware, the NYSCC team has been hard at work planning for Suppliers’ Day this September.

However, based on the results of a NYSCC survey to members and the Suppliers’ Day community, as well as the still evolving effects of COVID-19 pandemic including travel restrictions, the NYSCC Executive Board has made the hard decision to not hold Suppliers’ Day this year.

Next year, Suppliers’ Day will return to its traditional timeframe: 

May 4-5, 2021 at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York City.

NYSCC is unwilling to compromise the health and safety of our attendees, exhibitors and team.  We are also unwilling to deliver what we feel would be a sub-standard Suppliers’ Day experience this year. While we are disappointed to forego having the event this year, we feel that it is the right decision for everyone involved.

Although we currently can’t meet in-person, NYSCC is committed now more than ever in delivering high quality content through our Webinar Intensive Program and “At Home Live Series 2.0.”  In addition, access to resources and suppliers through our Digital Pop-Up & Solutions Center, as well as Cosmetic Raws searchable database provides networking and engagement.

As the leading non-profit organization for cosmetic chemists, NYSCC will continue to help our members as well as the beauty and personal care community be as successful as possible in this ever-changing environment.

For questions related to exhibiting or registration at Suppliers’ Day, please contact: suppliersday@nyscc.org.

All other questions, please contact:  jmcdermott@nyscc.org.

As it becomes available, additional information will be posted here on this site.

 

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About New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists (NYSCC)

Dedicated to the advancement of cosmetic science, the New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists, www.nyscc.org, strives to increase and disseminate scientific information through meetings and publications. By promoting research in cosmetic science and industry, and by setting high ethical, professional and educational standards, we reach our goal of improving the qualifications of cosmetic scientists. Our mission is to further the interests and recognition of cosmetic scientists while maintaining the confidence of the public in the cosmetic and toiletries industry. The NYSCC Suppliers’ Day, September 30 – October 1, 2020, at the Javits Center in New York City, has become the most important annual event on the industry calendar in North America for beauty ingredients, formulations, and delivery innovations. It attracts the leading players in the market and has become the showcase for new product launches, and educational programming, on top of being an excellent networking opportunity. For more information and to attend visit: www.nyscc.org/suppliers-day.

NYSCC Re-Launches the “At Home Live Series” with World of Chemistry

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NYSCC Re-Launches the “At Home Live Series” with World of Chemistry

A Week Long Intensive Educational Program with On Demand Sessions & Live Q&A Panel

 

(New York, NY,  July 2020)  The New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists (NYSCC) re-launches its “At Home Live Series 2.0” with World of Chemistry: A Global Perspective, starting Monday, July 20th.   A staple at the Suppliers’ Day events in NYC, World of Chemistry is available now with  4+ hours of ON DEMAND content and culminates with a LIVE panel presentation featuring the speakers from around the world on Thursday, July 23rd.

 

The four programs will cover post-COVID trends, regulations, the Brazilian cosmetic market as well as present a forward look at  what will be trending in the next decade.

 

Sessions are moderated by Richard Scott, Editor, Personal Care Magazine, and include:

  • 2030 Global Beauty & Personal Care Trends
    Sarah Jindahl, Associate Director, Global Beauty & Personal Care – MINTEL
  • Skin Barrier Repair in the Wake of COVID 19: Trends in the APAC BPC Market
    Jessica Qu, Marketing Director, Personal Care Ingredients & Solutions – BLOOMAGE/ASIA
  • The New Formulation Trends in Europe and the Regulatory Requirements
    Saira De Ferrari, CEO & Senior Consultant – COSMETIC ASSIST/EUROPE
  • Brazilian Cosmetic Market: The Path for Success
    Vanessa Arruda, Global Marketing Manager
    – ABC/BRAZIL

 

Visit www.nyscc.org/events for complete details.

To register go to:  https://attendee.gotowebinar.com/register/965479369270533901

 

 

NYSCC Presents Virtual Skin Microbiome Symposium & Digital Pop-Up & Solutions Center

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(New York, NY, June 2020)—The New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists (NYSCC) is pleased to announce a virtual week-long educational program focused on Skin Microbiome: Perspectives on Aging, Compromised Skin and Cosmetics.  This complimentary symposium, June 15-22, 2020 will include five on-demand sessions. a live panel Q&A, and the Suppliers’ Day Digital Pop-Up & Solutions Center.

The sessions, led by leading microbiome experts, will provide a holistic view of the skin microbiome and its impact on cutaneous structure in healthy, aged and compromised states.  Topics that will be covered include:

-“The Gut-Skin Connection and its Relation to Acne;“ Dr. Raja Sivamani, Director of Clinical Research, Department of Dermatology at the University of California

            -“The Gut Microbiome and the Hair Follicle;” Aleks Richards,
Senior R&D Manager, Nutrafol

-“Fresh Insights into the Skin Microbiome and Product Claims Essentials;” Carl D’Ruiz, Senior Manager of North American Regulatory and Governmental Affairs for Personal Care Products, DSM Nutritional Products, LLC.

-“The Influence of Cosmetic Ingredients on the Skin Microbiota;” Patrick Gonry,
Safety Assessor, Gobiotics

-“The Host-Microbiota Axis in Skin Aging and Repair;”  Professor Matthew J. Hardman, Chair in Wound Healing, Hull York Medical School and Director of Research, Hull York Medical School.

On Thursday, June 18th, at 11:00 am EDT, the presenters will participate in a live Q&A of the questions that registrants have had from the on demand content.  This interactive panel will be the finale of the Skin Microbiome symposium.

In addition, during the week of Skin Microbiome content, registrants can go to the Digital Pop-Up & Solutions Center sponsored by NYSCC Suppliers’ Day. This platform will allow Skin Microbiome participants to source and learn more about companies that have ingredients and resources advancing microbiome science and product innovations.  At this information portal, product materials, new product announcements as well as video will be available for viewing and download.  Participants will also be able to link directly with the suppliers’ to get more information and schedule appointments. The Digital Pop-Up Solution Center will also be a valuable resource in the months ahead before Suppliers’ Day takes place September 30-October 1, 2020 at the Javits Center in New York.

“NYSCC is excited to offer this new digital initiative to advance our members education and stay connected.  Skin Microbiome is a complex topic and our members and beauty community will get expert insight and information on this important trend in formulation and product development,” said Giorgino Macalino, Chair, NYSCC.  “Adding the sourcing element enriches this new virtual learning experience.”

The week of August 12th NYSCC will offer another digital symposium on Sun Care with the on demand content and culminating with a live Q&A with the presenters.

To register for the complimentary Skin Microbiome Symposium go to: https://nyscc.org/event-schedule/.  For access to the Suppliers’ Day Digital Pop-up & Solutions Center visit: https://nysuppliers20.mapyourshow.com/8_0/#/.

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About New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists (NYSCC)

Dedicated to the advancement of cosmetic science, the New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists, www.nyscc.org, strives to increase and disseminate scientific information through meetings and publications. By promoting research in cosmetic science and industry, and by setting high ethical, professional and educational standards, we reach our goal of improving the qualifications of cosmetic scientists. Our mission is to further the interests and recognition of cosmetic scientists while maintaining the confidence of the public in the cosmetic and toiletries industry. The NYSCC Suppliers’ Day, September 30 – October 1, 2020, at the Javits Center in New York City, has become the most important annual event on the industry calendar in North America for beauty ingredients, formulations, and delivery innovations. It attracts the leading players in the market and has become the showcase for new product launches, and educational programming, on top of being an excellent networking opportunity. For more information and to attend visit: www.nyscc.org/suppliers-day.

 

 

Delivery Systems for Antioxidants

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Introduction

As the body’s first defense against the elements, skin is frequently exposed to electromagnetic radiation from the Sun, which can lead to a variety of detrimental conditions such as photoaging, photoimmunosuppression, and photocarcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species are largely responsible for the initiation of these disease states in skin and are mostly due to exposure to ultraviolet light, but have also been shown to result to some extent from the absorption of visible and infrared light. Considerable efforts have also been made to better understand the effects of pollution on the skin from a free radical and reactive oxygen species point of view.

Antioxidants

The use of antioxidants in various skin treatments is a sound approach to improve the overall health state of skin [1]. This statement is supported by a wealth of research conducted over the last several decades toward better understanding how antioxidants mitigate the effects of solar radiation. Topical application of antioxidant-containing products reduces the deleterious effects of solar radiation exposure of the skin.

While some antioxidants may offer some photoprotection as a solar filter, the majority of their mechanisms are through their antioxidant capacity or immunomodulating effects. Some of the most common antioxidants in skin care formulations are vitamin E, vitamin C, and coenzyme Q. Historically, these were probably the most studied antioxidants due to their importance in the endogenous antioxidant system.

Equally important are a vast majority of botanical extracts, which are chock-full of phyto-antioxidants. In recent years, research has focused on understanding the antioxidant behavior of polyphenols in an attempt to harness their protective properties for skin. In some cases, specific polyphenols are used in formulation while in others the extract is directly added.

 

Topical Application of Antioxidants

Topical application of antioxidants is the most straightforward approach to fortify the skin. As compared to dietary intake of antioxidants, in many cases topical application allows: (1) greater concentrations to reach tissues, (2) greater tissue specificity, and (3) reduced side effects to other organs. Unfortunately, not all antioxidants (e.g., from extracts) easily cross the stratum corneum barrier. The fact that some antioxidants are not able to penetrate the skin could be considered a positive toxicological benefit. Skin permeation and antioxidant stability can be enhanced by utilizing state-of-the-art delivery systems.

One of the major factors with antioxidant stability in skin care formulations stems from the need to prevent oxidation within the formulation and also to deliver to the skin an active antioxidant that is bioavailable. In many cases, formulations are based on carrier systems in which oxidation can occur in the oil phase, water phase, or at the interface. More often than not, oxidation occurs at the interface. Some of the hurdles facing formulators in the antioxidant arena are a result of stability issues with antioxidants that are intended to be delivered to skin.

 

Antioxidant Carrier Systems

The use of carrier systems represents a real asset for the delivery of antioxidant to skin and can include various types of emulsion, vesicular, or lipid particle systems.

Emulsions systems

These systems are dispersions of oil and water and can refer to microemulsions, nanoemulsions, and Pickering emulsions. Microemulsions and nanoemulsions are characterized by the dispersion size of the emulsified phase, while Pickering emulsions refer to a type of emulsion that is stabilized by solid particles.

Vesicular systems

These systems consist of liposomes, phytosomes, transferomes, ethosomes, and niosomes. Liposomes are the most popular vesicular system used in personal care applications and are composed of concentric layers of phospholipid bilayers spherically shaped with a hollow center for the active ingredient. Phytosomes are vesicles of phospholipids that have high affinity for phytocompounds, such as polyphenols. Transferosomes are lipid vesicles that consist of fatty acids and a small amount of ethanol. They are more elastic than liposomes, which improves their deposition characteristics. Ethosomes are lipid vesicles that contain even greater amounts of ethanol, yielding a more flexible vesicle. Niosomes are lamellar vesicles based on nonionic surfactants. Due to the nature of the surfactants in niosomes, crossing the stratum corneum is more facile than in the case with other vesicles.

Lipid particle systems

These systems consist of lipid microparticles and lipid nanoparticles. Lipid microparticles are created by a process known as microencapsulation where a small solid or liquid droplet is surrounded with a thin layer of shell. Lipid nanoparticles are further categorized as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured carriers. Solid lipid particles consist of a lipid system in the solid state at room temperature with a thin surface coating on the outside as a stabilizer. Nanostructured lipid carriers, on the other hand, are more complex and contain lipids both in the solid and fluid phase. Typically, such systems can increase the stability of antioxidants and their permeation efficacy to skin as well as reduce irritation. The reader is referred to a review by Pol and Patravale for a nice introduction to the subject [2].

 

Nanoparticle and Nanocarriers

Nanoparticles and nanocarriers continue to be at the forefront of skin care research for their potential at stabilizing and delivering antioxidants to the skin. For example, gold nanoparticles are known for their anti-inflammatory, antiaging, and wound healing properties in skin care. A recently published study demonstrated how polyphenols from an aqueous extract can be used to reduce metal salts—in this case gold—into nanoparticles [3]. In another study, gold nanoparticles wrapped with chitosan were used to stabilize ellagic acid [4]. In both cases, green technology was used to fabricate the nanoparticle structures.

Nanoencapsulation is another area that shows much promise for the delivery of antioxidants to skin. Lipid-core nanocapsules containing resveratrol and lipoic acid have enhanced chemical stability and photostability as compared to the non-encapsulated forms of the molecules [5]. TiO2 is a nanoparticle found in many sun protection products. It functions by scattering incoming UV rays from the Sun and preventing photodamage to the skin. Researchers at Sabanci University in Istanbul found enhanced cellular penetration and antioxidant properties of quercetin-TiO2 nanoparticles, as compared to quercetin alone, in studies carried out on fibroblast cell cultures [6].

 

Concluding Remarks

Some of the challenges with the conventional delivery of antioxidants stems from their poor solubility, limited shelf-life stability, compromised photostability, and low degree of skin permeability. Delivery systems enhance the ability of antioxidants to carry out their function. Conventional systems used to deliver antioxidants consist of emulsion, vesicular, or lipid particle systems. In recent years, a great deal of interest has evolved in using nanoparticles as stabilization enhancers and delivery agents for antioxidants. Nanoencapsulation also offers much promise and has been shown to enhance the chemical stability and photostability of antioxidants.

 

References

  1. McMullen, R., Antioxidants and the Skin. 2nd ed. 2019, Boca Raton: CRC Press.
  2. Pol, A. and V. Patravale, Novel lipid based systems for improved topical delivery of antioxidants. Household and Personce Care TODAY, 2009(4): p. 5-8.
  3. Haddada, M., et al., Assessment of antioxidant and dermoprotective activities of gold nanoparticles as safe cosmetic ingredient. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2020. 189: p. 110855.
  4. Gubitosa, J., et al., Multifunctional green synthesized gold nanoparticles/chitosan/ellagic acid self-assembly: Antioxidant, sun filter and tyrosinase-inhibitor properties. Mat Sci Eng C, 2020. 106: p. 110170.
  5. Davies, S., et al., Simultaneous nanoencapsulation of lipoic acid and resveratrol with improved antioxidant properties for the skin. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2020. 192: p. 111023.
  6. Birinci, Y., et al., Quercetin in the form of a nano-antioxidant (QTiO2) provides stabilization of quercetin and maximizes its antioxidant capacity in the mouse fibroblast model. Enzyme Microb Tech, 2020. 138: p. 109559.

 


Roger L. McMullen, Ph.D. – BIO

Dr. Roger McMullen has over 20 years of experience in the personal care industry with specialties in optics, imaging, and spectroscopy of hair and skin. Currently, he is Principal Scientist in the Material Science department at Ashland Specialty Ingredients G.P. Roger received a B.S. in Chemistry from Saint Vincent College and completed his Ph.D. in Biophysical Chemistry at Seton Hall University.

Roger actively engages and participates in educational activities in the personal care industry. He frequently teaches continuing education courses for the SCC and TRI-Princeton. In addition, Roger is an Adjunct Professor at Fairleigh Dickinson University and teaches Biochemistry to students pursuing M.S. degrees in Cosmetic Science and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Prior to pursuing a career in science, Roger served in the U.S. Navy for four years on board the USS YORKTOWN (CG 48). He is fluent in Spanish and Catalan.

 

Formulating effective and stable W/O emulsions

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Cosmetic chemists are an innovative, curious, and creative group of scientists, continually looking to formulate the most effective and pleasing products for the world’s consumers. Yet when asked to create the galenic forms most often requested by marketing – creams and lotions – the “default emulsion” is almost always oil-in-water (O/W). While O/W systems offer good sensory properties and ease of manufacturing, the primary alternative system – water-in-oil (W/O) – offers distinct advantages, among them long-lasting adherence to the skin and improved water resistance. So why isn’t W/O used more often? Because (a) it is difficult to create a stable W/O system, and (b) the esthetics of a W/O emulsion are often undesirable (sticky, tacky, thick…).

Let’s cover some key concepts to enhance stability when formulating W/O emulsions:

  1. When making W/O emulsions, high energy is required

Why do we need high energy when making a W/O emulsion? High energy brings several benefits to your W/O system, altogether contributing to a stable emulsion:

  1. Creates high energy dissipation rates 1,2
  2. Controls particle size of the dispersed phase of the emulsion 1,2
  3. Reduces interfacial tension 1,2

To achieve the desired results, one may use high-energy equipment such as a rotor stator/homogenizer or a deflocculator at moderate to high shear.

Let’s take a closer look at each…

A) Dissipation rate refers to the rate of conversion of turbulence into heat by molecular velocity.

Here is a simplified energy flow chart when you are creating a W/O emulsion:

Turbulence, initiated by the high-shearing rotor stator, transfers its energy into kinetic energy within the W/O system. That energy of motion is converted into the large velocity gradients of the dispersed droplets of various sizes. And finally, the energy of the rapidly moving particles is converted into heat through dissipation.2

This is a very simplified flowchart, as there are many other variables involved, but the take-home message here is that the higher the conversion of energy into heat, the higher the dissipation energy, the more kinetically stable emulsion. Essentially, we do not want any energy left in the emulsion, especially in those water droplets because that can lead to instability.

B) The energy applied when creating a W/O emulsion affects the particle size of the internal phase of an emulsion.

As mentioned before, high energy processes will use rotor stators/homogenizers, while a low energy process may use simpler blades (turbine stirrer, propeller, or blade stirrer). If you use high energy, you will achieve a finer, more evenly dispersed emulsion, which is exactly what you want, as this is more stable.

But if homogenization is too mild, due to your equipment and/or shearing speed, your W/O emulsion will be highly poly-dispersed, meaning, there will be a wide size distribution in the dispersed droplets, which can lead to instability. 

C) And finally, we need to use high energy with W/O systems because it reduces the interfacial tension (energy present at the water-oil interface).

This benefit is a result of the other two: The more heat that is given off, the less energy and mobility in the dispersed water phase. And the smaller the average droplet size of the dispersed phase, the more the stability increases. Altogether, there is less energy remaining at the water-oil interface, so water droplets are less likely to coalesce and will remain stable within the continuous oil phase. 

  1. Electrolytes must be used

Electrolytes – inorganic salts such as magnesium sulfate or sodium chloride – must be present in the emulsion because they will stabilize your system through various mechanisms of action. For example, NaCl has been shown to decrease the particle size through electrostatic and steric repulsion in the droplets.3 CaCl2 has proven to decrease attractive forces between water droplets.3 And MgCl2 can reduce interfacial tension and enhance interfacial film strength.3

Each of these mechanisms may prevent one or more of the following from happening.

1) Ostwald ripening, also referred to as disproportionation, is caused by the difference in solubility in emulsion droplets. Smaller droplets are more soluble than larger ones, and with prolonged time, the smaller droplets tend to diffuse in the bulk and are deposited on larger droplets. Therefore, larger droplets eventually grow at the expense of smaller ones. Adding salts will counterbalance the driving force for Ostwald ripening, which is related to the total pressure and pressure in the droplets.3

2) Sedimentation is another unstable condition where there is no change to the droplet size, but droplets move to the bottom. The addition of various salts could improve stability by decreasing particle size and reducing the interfacial tension. Salts can allow for tighter packing of surfactant molecules at the O/W interface.3

3) Coalescence is when droplets join, creating larger sized droplets with water separation at the bottom. Adding salts will reduce the attractive forces between water droplets, which will reduce their collision frequency, and thereby prevent droplet coalescence and increase emulsion stability.3

  1. Depending on the emulsifier, the polarity of the oils used must be specific

Unlike O/W systems, the polarity of the oils used in the oil phase has an outsized influence on the stability of the emulsion, and the performance of high-polarity vs. low-polarity oils will be significant. This is because of the “like dissolves like” rule. In general, chemicals of similar polarities demonstrate better interaction. If the lipophilic tails of your emulsifier are polar, perhaps having esters or hydroxyl groups in its carbon backbone, for example, then the emulsifier is better suited in an oil phase of medium to high polarity. The opposite holds true as well. If the polarity of the oil phase does not match that of the emulsifier, the emulsion will not be stable.

Now, let’s talk briefly about the esthetics of W/O emulsions

W/O emulsions are often tacky or draggy, leaving an unpleasant skin feel and an uncomfortably thick layer of product. Also, as W/O systems are often used with pigments, many common emulsifiers do not have the correct compatibility with the wide variety of pigments used today, resulting in non-homogenous dispersions of the pigments within the emulsion. Many traditional W/O emulsifiers were not designed to address issues of skin feel or pigment dispersion, but modern advances in esterification chemistry allow for the creation of a new generation of emulsifiers that provide perceptibly improved sensory characteristics.

It can be suggested that the use of an emulsifier based on polyglycerol chemistry is especially suited to W/O systems due to enhanced stability resulting from large polar headgroups. (Incidentally, polyglycerol chemistry is considered “green” and advantageous when formulating natural or clean products…) Esterifying a polyglycerol backbone with other esters will significantly effect both skin feel and pigment dispersion properties; for example, the use of a ricinoleic acid ester could provide fluidity and improved skin feel, while the use of a hydroxystearic acid ester could improve the dispersibility of both coated and uncoated pigments.

With these concepts in mind, formulating a W/O emulsion can result in an elegant product satisfying the end consumer while meeting the requirements of marketing, allowing the creativity of the chemist to move “beyond the box” of traditional cosmetic emulsions.

References

  1. Turbulence and multiphase flow. http://www.lowshearschool.com/?page_id=16919
  2. The effect of shear on oil-water mixture. http://www.lowshearschool.com/?page_id=16933
  3. Zhu Q , Pan Y, Jia X, Li J, Zhang M, Yin L. Review on the stability mechanism and application of water-in-oil emulsions encapsulating various additives. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 18 (6): 1660-1675, 2019

Leor Fay Tal is the Technical Marketing Leader for the Personal Care division of Gattefossé USA. She delivers information on trends and consumers, provides technical marketing support to the company’s sales teams and agents across North America, Canada, and Mexico, and works to promote knowledge and understanding of the company’s ingredients. Prior to Gattefossé, Leor Fay had worked in the R&D Powder Laboratory and then as the Raw Material Regulatory Affairs Specialist at MANA Products. Leor Fay is also an active member of the NYSCC. She organized the April 2018 event Cosmetics in the Middle East, A Regulatory Perspective and now serves as the Secretary for the executive board.

 

 

 

 

Ben Blinder is the Senior Director for Gattefossé USA – Personal Care Division, where he is responsible for the strategic direction and performance of the cosmetic business for Gattefossé in the US and Mexico. Ben holds a chemical engineering degree from Lehigh University and has been working in the personal care industry for 32 years, with extensive experience in strategic and long-range planning, sales and technical management, and new technology search/discovery.  Ben also serves on the NYSCC Scientific Committee.

 

 

 

 

NYSCC Suppliers’ Day Partners with Cosmetic Executive Women (CEW) on New Beauty Award for Supplier’s Innovative Ingredients and Formulation

by james.runkle@drummondst.com james.runkle@drummondst.com No Comments

All Things Beauty to Be Celebrated May 2019 in NYC

 

(New York, NY, December 2018)—The New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists  (NYSCC) has renewed its partnership with CEW by sponsoring a new category in its prestigious Beauty Awards program the “Supplier’s Award: Ingredients and Formulation.”  Mirroring the Academy Awards Science and Technical Achievement awards, the winner of the Supplier’s Award will be announced in advance at the 40th Annual Suppliers’ Day taking place May 7-8, 2019 at the Javits Convention Center in New York City. The winner of the Supplier’s Award will also be recognized at the CEW Beauty Awards luncheon on May 17th at the New York Hilton that attracts more then 3,000 attendees.

Any ingredient and formulation provider that has demonstrated innovation and new technology can submit to the CEW Supplier’s Award.  The deadline for submissions is January 15, 2019.   The submissions can only be entered from a supplier, there is no year limitation, and natural and synthetic ingredients can be entered.  For the submission form and more information click here or email: beautyawards@cew.org

A curated panel of judges from leading beauty and personal care brands including members of the NYSCC Scientific Advisory Committee will select the finalists of the “CEW Supplier’s Award: Ingredients and Formulation.”  Finalists will be announced on April 2, 2019.

“Increasingly, the line between marketing and formulation is being challenged and blurred in product development and this award highlights how all the elements and departments—ingredients, formulation and new technology—need to work together for successful product launches,” said Cathy Piterski, Chair, NYSCC.

The NYSCC Suppliers’ Day is the main trade show and conference for beauty

ingredients, formulations, and delivery innovations.  New educational programming, expanded features and enhanced industry alliances taking place at the event in 2019 include:

-“Fragrance: The Invisible Art,” an all-day, in-depth Fragrance Program, co-produced with the American Society of Perfumers featuring experts in perfume, scent, essential oils, consumer trends, and more.

 

-Spotlight on the important topic of “Safety & Testing.”  Suppliers’ Day will be collaborating with IKW, a leading European Association for German Cosmetic, Toiletry, Perfumery and Detergent, to create a program that addresses important safety and lab testing topics in the industry today.

 

-Suppliers’ Day 2019 has also added a new exhibit hall at the Javits Center, making it the largest event in the show’s history.  This hall will also feature presentation theaters and an innovation hub that will experientially complement specific theater presentations.

 

-Enhanced student engagement with an expanded Future Chemists Workshop that will include college students from Florida, Illinois and other states across the country, as well as a segment for bench chemists who are new to the industry.

 

“I am looking forward to Suppliers’ Day 2019 being the most immersive and experiential event in cosmetics chemistry and product development for our attendees.

Being our 40th Anniversary, we will also look back at the evolution of our industry over the decades and explore current trends that are elevating the importance of formulation and ingredients in beauty innovation,” said Sonia Dawson, Chair-elect, NYSCC.

For more information on NYSCC and Suppliers’ Day visit: https://nyscc.org/suppliers-day or email: suppliersday@nyscc.org.   Companies interested in exhibiting or sponsoring the NYSCC Suppliers’ Day in 2019 should contact Jane McDermott, jmcdermott@nyscc.org or call 212.786.7468.

###

 

About New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists (NYSCC)

Dedicated to the advancement of cosmetic science, the New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists, www.nyscc.org, strives to increase and disseminate scientific information through meetings and publications. By promoting research in cosmetic science and industry, and by setting high ethical, professional and educational standards, we reach our goal of improving the qualifications of cosmetic scientists. Our mission is to further the interests and recognition of cosmetic scientists while maintaining the confidence of the public in the cosmetic and toiletries industry.  Connect with NYSCC on Twitter and Facebook at @NYSCC and Instagram: @NYSCCMAIN

 

About CEW:

CEW is an international organization of 9,000 individual members representing a cross section of beauty and related businesses. The composition of membership includes leading brands, indies, retailers, media and suppliers. CEW’s primary purpose is to provide programs online and in person to develop careers and knowledge of the beauty industry. CEW provides opportunities to connect and gain industry knowledge through networking events, trend reports, industry newsletters, interactive workshops and industry leader talks. For more information, please visit https://www.cew.org/.

NYSCC Suppliers’ Day Partners with Cosmetic Executive Women (CEW) on New Beauty Award for Supplier’s Innovative Ingredients and Formulation

by james.runkle@drummondst.com james.runkle@drummondst.com No Comments

All Things Beauty to Be Celebrated May 2019 in NYC

(New York, NY, December 2018)—The New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists  (NYSCC) has renewed its partnership with CEW by sponsoring a new category in its prestigious Beauty Awards program the “Supplier’s Award: Ingredients and Formulation.”  Mirroring the Academy Awards Science and Technical Achievement awards, the winner of the Supplier’s Award will be announced in advance at the 40th Annual Suppliers’ Day taking place May 7-8, 2019 at the Javits Convention Center in New York City. The winner of the Supplier’s Award will also be recognized at the CEW Beauty Awards luncheon on May 17th at the New York Hilton that attracts more then 3,000 attendees.

Any ingredient and formulation provider that has demonstrated innovation and new technology can submit to the CEW Supplier’s Award.  The deadline for submissions is January 15, 2019.   The submissions can only be entered from a supplier, there is no year limitation, and natural and synthetic ingredients can be entered.  For the submission form and more information click here or email: beautyawards@cew.org

A curated panel of judges from leading beauty and personal care brands including members of the NYSCC Scientific Advisory Committee will select the finalists of the “CEW Supplier’s Award: Ingredients and Formulation.”  Finalists will be announced on April 2, 2019.

“Increasingly, the line between marketing and formulation is being challenged and blurred in product development and this award highlights how all the elements and departments—ingredients, formulation and new technology—need to work together for successful product launches,” said Cathy Piterski, Chair, NYSCC.

The NYSCC Suppliers’ Day is the main trade show and conference for beauty ingredients, formulations, and delivery innovations.  New educational programming, expanded features and enhanced industry alliances taking place at the event in 2019 include:

-“Fragrance: The Invisible Art,” an all-day, in-depth Fragrance Program, co-produced with the American Society of Perfumers featuring experts in perfume, scent, essential oils, consumer trends, and more.

-Spotlight on the important topic of “Safety & Testing.”  Suppliers’ Day will be collaborating with IKW, a leading European Association for German Cosmetic, Toiletry, Perfumery and Detergent, to create a program that addresses important safety and lab testing topics in the industry today.

-Suppliers’ Day 2019 has also added a new exhibit hall at the Javits Center, making it the largest event in the show’s history.  This hall will also feature presentation theaters and an innovation hub that will experientially complement specific theater presentations.

-Enhanced student engagement with an expanded Future Chemists Workshop that will include college students from Florida, Illinois and other states across the country, as well as a segment for bench chemists who are new to the industry.

“I am looking forward to Suppliers’ Day 2019 being the most immersive and experiential event in cosmetics chemistry and product development for our attendees. Being our 40th Anniversary, we will also look back at the evolution of our industry over the decades and explore current trends that are elevating the importance of formulation and ingredients in beauty innovation,” said Sonia Dawson, Chair-elect, NYSCC.

For more information on NYSCC and Suppliers’ Day visit: https://nyscc.org/suppliers-day or email: suppliersday@nyscc.org.   Companies interested in exhibiting or sponsoring the NYSCC Suppliers’ Day in 2019 should contact Jane McDermott, jmcdermott@nyscc.org or call 212.786.7468.

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