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A Journey into Color Cosmetics and Lip Product Development

by james.runkle@drummondst.com james.runkle@drummondst.com No Comments

Introduction

The birth of color cosmetics is said to be traced back all the way to Mesopotamia over 5000 years ago where gems and semi-precious gems were ground up and applied to both the lips and the eyelids. In 4000 BCE, Egyptian women would apply Mesdement, a dark grey ore of lead, Galena chemically known as Lead Sulfide, and Malachite (bright blue green paste of Copper minerals) to color their faces for color. They also extracted color from seaweed, Iodine, and beetles to further add to their makeup palette. (1) Somewhere around 3000BCE women in in Greece applied a paste to their face consisting of white chalk, or lead, mixed in with crushed fruits such as Mulberries. They also used lipsticks comprised of clays mixed with red Iron.(1) During the Renaissance Era it was recorded that women use Arsenic in their face powders to replace lead and it wasn’t until the early 1800s that both of these were replaced by what is commonly known today as Zinc Oxide. In 1894 we saw the birth of what is known today as the PCPC, or Personal Care Products Council. Soon thereafter and beginning in the 1900’s the world saw a rapid increase in popularity of color cosmetics as well as the conception of many cosmetic companies commonly known today such as L’Oreal, Max Factor, Avon, and Maybelline to name a few. With this surge came new product forms such as hair dye, mascara, the first liquid nail polish, the powder compact, and in 1928, the very first lip gloss. In the 1940’s leg makeup was developed out of a need of necessity to fulfill the shortage in stockings due to World War II. Over the course of the next 60-70 years the beauty industry would experience a rapid growth spurt in not just technology but also in regulatory bodies that formed the very foundation for what our industry is today.

Color Ingredients

When we speak of color cosmetic formulations, the primary desired end benefit of these products is the same as it was thousands of years ago and that is to impart color to a part of the face to enhance one’s beauty and feel good about oneself. Whether it be a lipstick, foundation, concealer, eye shadow or pressed powder, the color additives are the main constituent and the base formula is what delivers the color and differentiates the product form. These color additives typically consist of pigments, lakes, dyes, and mica and their differences are explained below:

Pigments– Insoluble particles that impart a color to a product. Inorganic pigments are derived from minerals and have good stability to heat and light. Organic pigments, by nature, are carbon based and tend to have a brighter appearance to them. Commonly, pigments are often surface treated and sold in dispersions of various esters and oils to facilitate ease of use in manufacturing and ensure homogeneity of the color.

Lakes– Produced through precipitation of FD&C soluble dyes with metallic salts such as Aluminum salts. Lakes are useful to extend the color range of a shade palette. These ingredients are often surface treated and sold in dispersions of various esters and oils to facilitate ease of use in manufacturing

Dyes-Predominantly water-soluble, these ingredients are used in skin care, body care, fine fragrance, hair care, and color cosmetics. There are some dyes that are oil soluble as well.

Mica– A name given to a group of silicate materials that are used to add shimmer and sparkle

 

Even though all the ingredients above can be used across the broad category of color cosmetics from eye shadow and pressed powders to lipsticks and foundations, for the purposes of this article we will focus solely on the formulation of lipsticks and liquid lip products.

Physiology of the Lips

The physiology of the lips plays a key role when developing lip products. By nature, the lips are thinner than the skin on the rest of your body and therefore are more sensitive to changes in temperature and texture of a product. Therefore, comfortability and wear are 2 key product parameters that must be properly balanced during development. The lips also do not have hair follicles or oil glands and as a result of this are more prone to drying out especially in the winter months or in low humidity climates. As a result of this, key benefit claims such as hydration and intense moisturization are common for this product type. Finally, the lips do not contain melanocytes found in the skin and as such the color from the lips comes from the blood vessels directly under the surface of the lips.

During aging the lips begin to undergo biological changes like that around other parts of the face and body. The shape of the lips begins to become narrower and longer. They begin to lose volume and color overtime making them appear paler and less vibrant in color and the lines on the lip surface begin to deepen often causing the unwanted side effect of bleeding and feathering. Furthermore, they often present themselves with an unsmooth color tone and appearance.

Environmental exposure can also cause premature aging and thinning of the lips. Chronic UV exposure causes a breakdown in the collagen making the lips appear less full and voluminous. Dehydration from extreme weather conditions or poor health habits can lead to premature and undesirable chafing while exposure to environmental pollutants, i.e., free radicals, and smoking can lead to premature lip lines above the top lip.

Lip Product Formulation

Given the sensitivity of the lips and the desire to keep them young and vibrant looking there are multiple lip products out on the market today each with their own unique benefits and performance. Typically, colored lip products are found in 4 distinct anhydrous forms:

  1. Lipsticks
  2. Liquid Lipsticks
  3. Lip Gloss
  4. Lip Balms

Traditional lip formulations are composed of emollients, oils, waxes, and colorants with the ingredient ranges varying to deliver a stick or liquid format. Emollients/natural oils such Castor Oil, Lanolin, Shea Butter, are primarily used to help disperse colorants, while providing moisture and smooth application. Structuring agents such as Ozokerite, Polyethylene, and Carnauba and gellants are often used to give the sticks rigidity and stability while film formers are often utilized to improve the transfer resistance and wear properties. Benefit ingredients such as vitamins, natural oils, Hyaluronic acid, fragrance, etc. can all be added as well based on the target audience and desired claims.

In terms of finish, lip products typically are found in multiple styles ranging from matte, satin, pearl and shine with sheer to full coverage levels. From a performance perspective, today’s products are a great evolution to those from a century ago offering intense, continuous hydration, waterproof and transfer proof properties, SPF protection, and even all-day long wear.

Conclusion

Over the years the line between color cosmetics and skin care has become less defined. While the primary function of a color cosmetic is to provide color to the face, lips and eyes, the formulas themselves have become more technologically advanced and multi-faceted. Today’s products offer the consumer benefits beyond color such as anti-aging (wrinkle reduction), sun protection, anti-pollution, reduction of oily and acnegenic skin, minimization of scars, and even  tattoo and hyperpigmentation coverage. Additionally, companies continue to innovate in new color cosmetic product forms and test methodologies to deliver aesthetically pleasing, high performance products. For certain, this is a space that will continue to not only innovate but also adapt to today’s complex global challenges while pivoting to consumer needs for years to come!

References

  1. https://cosmeticsinfo.org/Ancient-history-cosmetics

 

Authors

 

Peter Konish has been in the industry for 25 years and is currently the Director of the Lip Category, Product Development and Innovation for Coty. Prior to this, he was the Global Director of Technical Operations in the Skin Health division of Johnson and Johnson. In this role Peter was responsible for Process Development, Packaging Development, and External Development/Innovation. Before moving to Technical operations, Peter spent 13 years at NeoStrata in Product Development overseeing the development of numerous Anti-Aging, Prestige Beauty, and Dermatological skin and body care. Peter also spent 9 years at L’Oreal in its Fine Fragrance division working on such brands as Ralph Lauren and Kiehl’s. Peter has a background in polymer chemistry, he has co-authored numerous book chapters and scientific publications, and has been an industry speaker at SCC events and annual AAD meetings.

 

 

Jeanine Smith has been in the industry for 19 years with her core focus in color cosmetics.  She is currently the Senior Manager of the Lip Category at Coty.  Prior to joining Coty, Jeanine was a Senior Manager at Avon Products where she worked in product development for the Eye, Nail and Lip categories.

 

The facts you need to know: new FDA proposed Sunscreen Regulation

by NYSCC NYSCC No Comments

Sunscreen Innovation Act

The Sunscreen Innovation Act sponsored by Jack Reed was introduced to the Senate Committee Health, Education, Labor and Pensions on March 13, 2014.  It amends the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to establish a process for the review and approval of over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen active ingredients.

FDA Proposes New Safety Testing for Selected Sun Filters

On February 26, 2019 the FDA published a proposed rule that would put into effect a final monograph for non-prescription OTC sunscreen drug products.  It establishes conditions under which certain OTC drugs may be marketed without approved new drug applications, indicating these products would be Generally Recognized as Safe and Effective (GRASE).  The sun care industry was hopeful that data previously submitted to the FDA would lead to the approval of additional sun filters currently used in Europe, under the FDA time and extent rule (TEA) policy.

Significance of the Proposed Safety Testing Protocol

To establish safety in use of sunscreen products, the FDA is proposing a Maximal Usage Trial study (MUsT). This is a human pharmacokinetic test that measures the amount of absorption of a drug into the body.  This study is new to the cosmetics industry and is more commonly used to study absorption of prescription drugs into the body.  The FDA believes this study will help to determine the potential effect of long-term use of an active ingredient.

 


Bio for Howard Epstein, Ph.D.

Howard Epstein is Director of Technical Services for EMD Performance Materials Corporation, Philadelphia, PA., an affiliate of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany. He was a scholar in residence at the University of Cincinnati department of dermatology and received his Ph.D. in Pharmacognasy from the Union Institute & University in Cincinnati, Ohio during that time. He has been in the cosmetics industry for many years since he began his career formulating cosmetics for Estee Lauder, Maybelline, Max Factor, Bausch & Lomb and Kao Brands. In addition to his interest in botanicals Howard previously served as editor of the Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Science and is a member of the International Academy of Dermatology. He is on the editorial board of the dermatological journals Clinics in
Dermatology and SKINmed representing the cosmetics industry to dermatologists.

Howard has authored chapters in various cosmetic technology textbooks including various chapters in Harry’s Cosmeticology, and holds eight patents and two patent applications.

Sunscreen Monograph Proposed New Rules and its Impact on Formulations-Part II

by NYSCC NYSCC No Comments

In my recent blog published in August, changes to the current sunscreen tentative monograph were proposed.  These changes are probably the most drastic changes to the sunscreen monograph since its inception.  In this section, I would like to tackle two key areas related to the changes requested by the FDA.  The first one is the human pharmacokinetics Maximal Usage Trial (MUsT) for sunscreens conducted by the FDA and published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in May 2019.  The second is the response from the Personal Care Product Council (PCPC) to the requests from the FDA for additional safety data.

The FDA conducted a MUsT trial on 4 sunscreen formulations.  The products consisted of 2 sprays, one lotion and one cream. A detailed description of the products used in the study and the sunscreens concentrations used is displayed in Table I below.

Table I

Concentrations of sunscreens in all treatments

Treatment Percent sunscreen contents per label
Avobenzone Oxybenzone Octocrylene Ecamsule
Spray 1 3.00 6.00 2.35 0.00
Spray 2 3.00 5.00 10.00 0.00
Lotion 3.00 4.00 6.00 0.00
Cream 2.00 0.00 10.00 2.00

Twenty-four subjects were enrolled in the study and were randomized into 4 groups.  Each treatment was studied on 6 individuals. All subjects finished the study except one.  Products were applied at a rate of 2 mg/cm2 on 75% of the body area.  Products were applied by a trained expert and were re-applied every 2 hours four times a day.  The study ran for 4 days and panelists were kept indoors.  Thirty blood samples were collected from each panelist over a period of 7 days and were analyzed for their concentration of sunscreens using a validated HPLC method.

Mean maximum plasma concentrations for all sunscreens were calculated for the four treatments and are displayed in Table II.

Table II

Geometric mean maximum plasma concentration for all treatments

Treatment Geometric Mean Maximum plasma concentration, ng/mL (%CV)
Avobenzone Oxybenzone Octocrylene Ecamsule
Spray 1 4.0 (60.9) 209.6 (66.8) 2.9 (102) Not applicable
Spray 2 3.4 (77.3) 194.9 (52.4) 7.8 (113.3) Not applicable
Lotion 4.3 (46.1) 169.3 (44.5) 5.7 (66.3) Not applicable
Cream 1.8 (32.1) Not applicable 5.7 (47.1) 1.5 (166.1)

As seen from the table, all sunscreens tested had higher blood levels than the FDA proposed threshold of 0.5 ng/mL.  These levels were also achieved on the first day of treatment.  The levels obtained triggered the FDA to request safety data not only on the sunscreens studied but also on the 12 sunscreens listed in the monograph.  In addition, the FDA requested MUsT studies to be conducted by the manufacturers on several dosage forms to establish proper guidelines for usage based on safety and efficacy.  Regardless of the results obtained, the FDA insisted on the fact that individuals should not refrain from using sunscreens.

In response to the request from the FDA, the PCPC sent a letter to describe the protocols and studies suggested by the council as well as a timeline.  The PCPC suggested to conduct, in addition to MUsT studies, several surveys on usage of sunscreen products to guide the council in designing the MUsT studies.  The timeline extends till 2023 which should give the industry some breathing room in terms of formulations.  Once the studies are received and completed, an additional timeline delineating the safety of the selected molecules will be proposed.  In the council’s response, two sunscreens were not considered for MUsT studies.  These are Cinoxate and Dioxybenzone.  The fate of these two sunscreens is not determined at this stage yet.

The sunscreen monograph has been evolving for the past 35 years to keep up with the advancement in science.  Formulators, and companies in the field of sun care will have to adjust one more time to the changes.  These changes bring a lot of new challenges and opportunities to innovate and lead.


 

Biography

Dr. Fares started his career in personal care studying the effect of solvents on sunscreen chemicals.  His interest in skin drug delivery especially from polymeric matrices grew during his graduate work at Rutgers, where he completed his Ph. D. in Pharmaceutics.

Dr. Fares worked at Block Drug and GlaxoSmithKline where he held positions in research and development in the areas of skincare and oral care.  After that, he joined L’Oreal where he held several positions of increasing responsibility leading to AVP of skincare.  He is currently the Senior Director of skincare and oral care at Ashland Specialty Ingredients.  Dr. Fares is the author of many publications, and patents and made many presentations in national and international meetings in the areas of suncare, skincare, and oral care.

 

Alban Muller awarded at “the Future of Sustainability” event!

by NYSCC NYSCC No Comments

Alban Muller has taken key initiatives for contributing towards building the sustainable and circular economy. These contributions played a major role in achieving the “Most Sustainable Company” award at the Future of Sustainability event organized by New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists.

Alban Muller Prioritizes Sustainable Economy Development

ECO-VALORIZATION OF PRODUCTS

Alban Muller attended the the 5th International Congress of Cosmetopoeia and 1st International Meeting of the Cosmetopoeia of the Pacific which was held in Polynesia in November 2016. This Congress gathered academic researchers and industrialists from the perfume and cosmetics sector on the worldwide Cosmetopée’s advances subject.

Jean-Marc Seigneuret, Ingredients Technical Director for Alban Muller Company and Olivier Touboul, Director of the South Pacific Cosmetology Laboratory, shared their project on eco-valorization of Tahitian grapefruit.

Eco-responsible Approach
This approach, which is part of a process of encouraging the circular economy, proposes to preserve the pulp and pericarp of grapefruit juice, considered as industrial waste, in order to reuse it in grapefruit extracts for cosmetic purposes, thanks to eco-responsible extraction and drying techniques.

The Circular Eco-Extraction Congress: co-valorize the molecules derived from flax-seed by installing a bio refinery.
On January 26th, Alban Muller Company also participated in the Circular Eco-Extraction Congress, valorization of the cosmetics vegetal sector, organized in Limoges. Speaking in the session “Local Sourcing Opportunities”, Jean-Marc Seigneuret, Ingredients Technical Director for Alban Muller Company, discussed the topic of “Cosmetic ingredients from the flax-seed bio refinery”.This collaborative project, supported by the Cosmetic Valley, was created by the company for applications in several complementary industries (agro-food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics). This original and innovative example enables Alban Muller Company to go even further in its Societal and Environmental Responsibility approach and in its expertise: develop economically viable and eco-responsible industrial processes and obtain molecules with an interest in cosmetics.

About Alban Muller
Alban Muller, l’expert du Naturel is world-renowned in the Beauty & Health Industries since 1978. Alban Muller manufactures 100% natural, innovative and globally compliant actives as well as finished products, ready to be filled and distributed. Alban Muller has developed an exclusive and eco-responsible manufacturing process named Zeodration. Alban Muller is also recipient of numerous awards such as the Ecovadis Gold Certification for its ecological commitment as well as the Prestigious Living Heritage Label (EPV) delivered by the French Government in recognition of its unique know-how.

Colloids and Surface Science in Medicine & Personal Care Products – A BIG Success!

by NYSCC NYSCC No Comments

The NYSCC sponsored the Session: “Colloids and Surface Science in Medicine & Personal Care Products” at the American Chemical Society – Colloid & Surface Science Symposium held at The City College of New York July 9th – July 12th. The Session was moderated by Elizabeth Kaufman of the NYSCC. The Session was a success and it received full attendance every day for 3 consecutive days.

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