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Nanomaterial safety and regulations in personal care product development

by james.runkle@drummondst.com james.runkle@drummondst.com No Comments

 

  1. Brief history of nanomaterial regulations

 According to Wikipedia, the word “nanotechnology” was first coined by Professor Norio Taniguchi of Tokyo University in 1974. He used it to describe semiconductor processes such as thin film deposition and ion beam milling, which exhibit characteristic control on the order of a nanometer.  Since the 1980s, the term nanotechnology has been referring to the fabrication, use/manipulation, control and characterization of structures devices or materials with a least one dimension in the size range of 1–100 nm. 1,2

Nanotechnologies represent a fast-growing market, bringing with them a combination of benefits, promises, risks, and uncertainties.  It is synonymous with high technology and high efficacy. It has often been used as a buzzword in advertisements and label claims of many consumer products, including personal care products, to gain attention.  Various physical and chemical properties of a material can be affected by its particle size. Nanomaterials have been engineered to have enhanced properties and performance that are beyond their non-nano counterparts. However, these much enhanced properties also raises questions about their safety.

In June 2007, the safety of nanomaterials such as nano TiO2 in sunscreen and fulluerene was raised in the article, Nanotechnology, the untold promise, and unknown risk, in Consumer Reports.  In August 2007, Friend of Earth (FOE) published Technology and Sunscreens, raising the particular concern over nano TiO2 and ZnO in sunscreens and calling for labeling and regulation of nanomaterials in consumer products. Earlier in 2006, a coalition of environmental and consumer groups, including the International Center for Technology Assessment, Friends of the Earth, and Our Bodies, Ourselves, filed a legal petition with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) asking FDA to regulate nanotechnology.

The first regulatory move was made by European Commission (EC).   EC acknowledged the safety concerns considering that nanomaterials could have very different physical and chemical properties over their non-nano counterparts, potentially resulting in different toxicological profiles. In 2005, the EU Scientific Committee on Consumer Products was requested by EC to provide a scientific opinion on the safety of nanomaterials in cosmetic products, in particular, the appropriateness of existing methodologies to assess the potential risk associated. This created public fear regarding nanomaterials in consumer products, especially in personal care products. In the meantime, the uncertainty of the future regulatory landscape made it extremely difficult for cosmetic formulators to incorporate nanomaterials in any formulation.

In 2009, REGULATION (EC) No 1223/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 30 November 2009 on cosmetic products stated the purpose and need of a definition of nanomaterial, which has been evolving since. Most recently, COMMISSION RECOMMENDATION of 10 June 2022 on the definition of nanomaterial, C 229/1, defines nanomaterial as follows:

Nanomaterial means a natural, incidental, or manufactured material consisting of solid particles that are present, either on their own or as identifiable constituent particles in aggregates or agglomerates, and where 50 % or more of these particles in the number-based size distribution fulfill at least one of the following conditions:

– one or more external dimensions of the particle are in the size range 1 nm to 100 nm;
– the particle has an elongated shape, such as a rod, fibre or tube, where two external dimensions are smaller than 1 nm and the other dimension is larger than 100 nm.
– the particle has a plate-like shape, where one external dimension is smaller than 1 nm and the other dimensions are larger than 100 nm

Moreover, Article 16 of Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 on cosmetic products requires that, in addition to the notification under Article 13, cosmetic products containing nanomaterials shall be notified to the Commission by the Responsible Person using electronic means six months prior to being placed on the market. Notification should be done on Cosmetic Products Notification Portal (CPNP).

 

  1. Interpretation of nanomaterial definition:

The interpretation of the nanomaterial definition depends to a large extent on the size measurement method. Because of the structural complexity of nanomaterials, no single test method is capable of measuring all nanomaterials precisely and properly. EC recommends determining nanomaterial by its primary particle size or internal structure while allowing sectoral interpretation according to the actual use conditions, which may vary drastically from industry to industry.

In 2011, Cosmetic Europe issued their own interpretation of EC definition of nanomaterial, and then an update in 2019, stating that “materials with constitutive elements having a dimension in the nano-range (e.g. aggregates, agglomerates, composites) but that are themselves greater than 100 nm in size should not be considered as nanomaterials unless they release nano-objects or aggregates of less than 100 nm in size in cosmetic products under normal use conditions”.  Accordingly, the size of aggregates or agglomerates is used to determine the nanomaterial for labeling cosmetic products. This interpretation has been followed by many cosmetic companies.

 

  1. Commercial use of nanomaterials

According to a EC’s report, Sub-working group of on nanomaterial definition, published on January 28, 2021, 37,647 cosmetic products were notified with nanomaterials in EU market, (via Art.13 procedure), which corresponds to about 1.5% of all notifications. According to 2015 – 2020 data, on average, about 10 new cosmetic products containing nanomaterials are placed on the EU market every day.

Most common product categories with nanomaterials: (64% of all nanomaterials notifications):

  1. Sun protection
  2. Nail varnish/nail make up
  3. Oxidative hair care
  4. Foundation
  5. Lip care products and lipsticks

The most used cosmetic ingredients are reported below (4 ingredients accounts for over 70% of all CPNP notifications):

  1. Titanium Dioxide
  2. Silica Dimethyl Silylate, Silane, dichlorodimethyl-, reaction products with silica
  3. Carbon Black nano (CI77266)
  4. Silica

Scientific Committee for Consumer Safety (SCCS) under European Commission is requested by EC to evaluate the safety of the listed nanomaterials via a process that was based on the scientific literature available at the time and SCCS’ expert judgment. In early 2021, SCCS published an advice on the safety of nanomaterials in cosmetics, in which nanomaterials of concern were separated into two groups. 3

     — 16(4) of the Cosmetics Regulation

28 substances including silica, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Methylene Bis Benzotriazolyl Tetramethylbutylphenol were listed in the appendix 1 in an order of priority according to risk potential (based on a number of criteria).

     — 16(6) of the Cosmetics Regulation

SCCS reviewed three previous inclusive opinions on colloid silver, nano styrene/acrylate polymer and nano silica, and identified certain aspects relating to each of these nanomateirals that raised safety concern.

 

  1. Nano TiO2 /ZnO in sunscreens

For personal care products, nano TiO2 and ZnO are perhaps the two most concerning ingredients due to their wide use as sunscreen actives. Because of their very small primary particle size, nano TiO2 and ZnO are much more transparent on the skin and much more potent in UV protection than their non-nano or pigmentary counterparts. For instance, pigmentary TiO2 is known to be completely opaque and cannot be used in any skin care product for effective UV protection.  Nano TiO2, with a primary size of 10 – 20 nm, is not only highly transparent but also provides 5 – 6 times higher SPF.   For this reason, nano TiO2 and ZnO have been used widely in sunscreen products in Japan and Australia since 1980s.  They have been popular among those having sensitive skin and allergic to organic sunscreens.

Up to now, and after the use by hundreds of millions of consumers, there have been no reports of any adverse health effects for nano TiO2 and ZnO. However, they were still put under great scrutiny due to the general concerns and fear that were raised for nanomaterials in early 2000s.  Many customers, especially in EU, became somewhat nanophobic at the time as the future of regulatory landscape remained uncertain.

For topical application, the major concern is transdermal adsorption or penetration.  After years of study, SCCS issued in 2012 OPINION ON Zinc oxide (nano form) COLIPA S76 stating thatThere is no evidence for the absorption of ZnO nanoparticles through skin and via the oral route. Even if there was any dermal and/or oral absorption of ZnO nanoparticles, continuous dissolution of zinc ions would lead to complete solubilization of the particles in the biological environment.” 4 Two years later, the SCCS issued the OPINION ON 22 on Titanium Dioxide (nano form), stating “the main consideration in the current assessment is the apparent lack of penetration of TiO2 nanoparticles through skin.” 5

Another concern is photo-catalytic activity of nano TiO2 that lead to generation of free radicals and ensuing oxidation.  Surface treatment of nano TiO2 had been quite common, and the data collected by SCCSs on commercial grades confirmed that the photo-catalytic activity could be much suppressed by surface treatment.

Finally, EU revised the nano TiO2 monograph for use as UV filters in 2016. The key updates included a list of allowed surface treatments and a limit on the photocatalytic activity. In the same year, ZnO was officially approved as an UV filter, and a list of surface treatments and solubility specification were included in the monograph. 6

After years of investigation, EC finally concluded that nano TiO2 and ZnO were safe for personal care use as long as:

  1. They comply with the specifications in the EU monographs.
  2. The final product will not lead to exposure of the end-user’s lungs by inhalation.

For other nanomaterials under review, the SCCS has yet to establish final opinions. The future regulatory status remains uncertain.

 

  1. Regulations in other regions

Nanomaterial is generally defined as a material with internal or external dimensions in the range of 1 – 100 nm in other regions.   Many regulatory agencies share similar concerns to EC’s, but they have not acted as swiftly as EC.  Although there are guidelines for considering the safety of nanomaterials, there are few laws enacted to regulate them.  To the author’s knowledge, there are two regulations outside EU:

A) Canada – If a sunscreen product contains only inorganic UV filters, nano TiO2 and/or ZnO, it is considered a Natural Health Product, for which the premarket approval is not needed. However, if any of the two is used with organic UV filters, the sunscreen is a drug product. Safety of nano TiO2/ZnO needs to be addressed and approved, which can be painstaking. Further, there is no official test method and threshold for classifying nanomaterials.

B) China – “Regulations on the Supervision and Administration of Children’s Cosmetics” issued by the State Food and Drug Administration (2021 No. 123), was issued in 2021. Section 7.1 states that:

“….. New raw materials that are still in the monitoring period should not be used, and raw materials prepared by new technologies such as genetic technology and nanotechnology should not be used. If there is no alternative raw material that must be used, the reason should be explained, and evaluate the safety of children’s cosmetics”.

Since nano TiO2 and ZnO are not new technologies, they could be exempted from this regulation. However, the ambiguity in interpreting the regulatory language and difficulty in effective communication with Chinese officials have made many company shy away from nano TiO2 or ZnO, and instead turning to the non-nano grades.

 

  1. Summary

Nanomaterial safety and regulations are important to personal care product development. Many nanomateterials used in our industry are under safety review and their future is uncertain. As far as nano TiO2 and ZnO are concerned, it is official that they are safe as long as they are not exposed to end-users’ lung in application. Due to the complex structures of nanomaterials, their size analysis method, data interpretation and regulatory classification have been constantly investigated and are still evolving. Formulators are highly advised to consult with their regulatory experts as well as the suppliers when choosing nano or non-nanomaterials.

 

References:

  1. (2007a) Opinion on: the Scientific Aspects of the Existing Proposed Definition Relating to Products of Nanoscience Nanotechnologies. Brussels: European Commission Health Consumer Protection Directorate General.
    SCENHIR. (2007b) Opinion on: the Appropriateness of the Risk Assessment Methodology in Accordance with the Technical Guidance Documents for the New and Existing Substances for Assessing the Risk of Nanomaterials. Brussels.
  1. ISO/TS 27687. (2008). Nanotechnologies – Terminology and Definitions for Nano-objects – Nanoparticle, Nanofibre and Nanoplate.
  2. SCCS/1618/2020 Scientific Advice; https://health.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2022-08/sccs_o_239.pdf
  3. SCCS/1489/12; https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_103.pdf
  4. SCCS/1516/13 Revision of 22 April 2014; https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_136.pdf
  5. COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2016/1143 of 13 July 2016, amending Annex VI to Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on cosmetic products

A stem-cell based approach against photoaging

by james.runkle@drummondst.com james.runkle@drummondst.com No Comments

We have all heard the term “photoaging” and can agree on its definition, succinctly described by the Canadian Dermatology Association: “Photoaging is premature aging of the skin caused by repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV), primarily from the sun but also from artificial UV sources. Photoaging differs from chronologic aging: the damaging effects of UV rays – from the sun or artificial tanning sources – alter normal skin structures.”(1) As a result, this UV light causes DNA changes at a cellular level, and because photodamage happens in the deepest layers of the skin – the dermis – it can take years before the damage surfaces and becomes visible(2). (As we all know, UVA radiation is highly damaging, penetrating much deeper than UVB radiation; while UVB causes sunburn, UVA results in premature skin aging and wrinkle formation – and both, of course, can cause skin cancers(3).) Historically speaking, our industry has long focused on protection against UV radiation via the use of sunscreens (which remain on the surface of the skin), but later scientific advances have produced ingredients and formulations intended to penetrate the skin and act to protect cells in the dermal and epidermal layers. And the most recent efforts have been concentrated on the protection of keratinocyte stem cells in the epidermis against UVA-induced DNA lesions, along with boosting the cells’ endogenous DNA-repair system.

It must be mentioned that the concept of “stem cells” commonly brings to mind embryonic stem cells, which can form new cells of any kind, but here we are referring to epidermal stem cells, which can only differentiate into keratinocytes. And as we know from basic skin biology, keratinocytes – if healthy – can potentially renew indefinitely, providing a continuous supply of new cells to the epidermis as part of the essential renewal process of the skin.

But back to the topic of UVA protection: It has been shown that epidermal stem cells have a greater capacity to fight against UVA aggression than their “daughter”, or differentiated, cells, due to more efficient repair mechanisms(4). By the same token, epidermal stem cells are highly sensitive to UVA-induced damage and lose their “stemness” potential when exposed to excessive UVA radiation, which is why it is of utmost importance to protect these stem cells so that they remain robust and productive. It has recently been discovered that an extract from the fruit sechium edule can provide significant biological protection to these stem cells against UVA-induced epidermal damage(5).

The protective effect of sechium edule fruit extract on the epidermis can be observed through its protection against UVA-induced DNA damage, boosting of DNA repair capacities, and maintenance of the stemness potential of keratinocytes.

It was found that exposure to UVA induces the formation of oxidative DNA lesions, specifically 8-oxoG lesions, in keratinocyte cells and causes extensive damage to DNA in the form of fragmentation. A study conducted with the comet assay showcases the severity of UVA-induced damage on DNA as visualized in the samples exposed to UVA with the fragmented DNA forming a tail behind intact DNA. Treatment with sechium edule fruit extract helps to protect keratinocytes by significantly reducing the number of oxidative lesions thereby helping to keep the DNA intact (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. Protection against UVA-induced DNA damage (***p<0.001) (6)

As mentioned earlier, the human body is equipped with its own endogenous repair mechanisms that can repair DNA, but these mechanisms can often be affected by UV and become less effective. The next study looked at the enzymes involved in the repair of 8-oxoG lesions, OGG1 & MYH. The treatment of keratinocytes with the extract brought about a significant increase in the mRNA expression of both OOG1 and MYH suggesting an increase in the DNA repair capacities (see Figure 2).

Figure 2. Increase in enzymes associated with DNA repair capacities of 8oxo-G lesions (***: p<0.001; *: p<0.05) (6)

The most important aspect of protection against photoaging is the preservation of the stemness potential of keratinocytes to ensure proper epidermal homeostasis. The last study observed the ability of keratinocyte stem cells to multiply and form new keratinocytes. In the graph below, holoclones refer to cells capable of extensive proliferation and meroclones are cells with limited proliferation capacity. You can think of holoclones as keratinocyte stem cells and meroclones as daughter cells.

When exposed to UVA, the holoclones change into meroclones and the number of colonies drastically decreases, showcasing that the stemness potential has been negatively impacted by UV exposure and the self-renewal capacity lost. In comparison, holoclones treated with the extract of sechium edule fruit and exposed to UVA present a significant increase in number of colonies and the stemness potential of keratinocytes preserved (see Figure 3).

 

Figure 3. The preservation of stemness potential in keratinocytes (6)

In conclusion, when the “stemness” potential of the keratinocytes is preserved it results in proper skin homeostasis and can lead to improved skin appearance (smoother skin, reduced wrinkles, more even skin tone, etc.). In addition to the use of broad-spectrum sunscreens (always recommended!), an active such as the one described above derived from the fruit of sechium edule is another tool in the arsenal of the formulating chemist in the ongoing fight against the effects of photoaging and UV-damage.

References:

  1. dermatology.ca
  2. yalemedicine.org
  3. uihc.org
  4. Metral, Elodie, et al., “Keratinocyte stem cells are more resistant to UVA radiation than their direct progeny.” PLOS ONE, 2018 Sept, vol. 13, n° 9, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203863
  5. Metral, Elodie, et al., “Long-term Genoprotection Effect of Sechium edule Fruit Extract Against UVA Irradiation in Keratinocytes.”, Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2018 Mar; 94(2): 343-350, https://doi.org/10.1111/php.12854
  6. Metral, Elodie, et al. “Long-Term Genoprotection Effect of Sechium Edule Fruit Extract against UVA Irradiation in Keratinocytes.” Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2018 Mar; 94(2): 343-350, https://doi.org/10.1111/php.12854

 

Authors:


Ben Blinder is the Executive Director, Business Operations at Gattefossé USA, with P/L responsibility for the personal care and pharmaceutical business units in the US and Mexico. He is also a founding member of the Advisory Committee on Diversity & Inclusion for Gattefossé in North America. Ben holds a BS in chemical engineering from Lehigh University.

 


Christina Philips is the Technical Marketing Leader at Gattefossé USA, responsible for providing information on trends and customer insights and technical marketing support for the sales team. She works closely with formulation chemists at the North American Technical Center to provide customers with informative lab sessions and conceptualize sensorial prototypes that highlight the company’s ingredients. She also volunteers as the Director of Empowerment for FOREFRONT Charity. Christina holds a BS in cellular and molecular biology from the University of Connecticut.

Silicone Alternative Solutions for Hair Care

by james.runkle@drummondst.com james.runkle@drummondst.com No Comments

 

Introduction

Silicones have been widely used in the cosmetic industry for decades. They are exceptionally versatile and impart multifaceted benefits across a wide range of beauty and personal care products. Not all silicones have been created equal, however, and some of these materials are now limited by regulatory restrictions on their use. Due to an increasing focus on their toxicological and environmental impact, consumers are now gravitating towards natural, safe, and sustainable alternatives. This article provides an overview on how silicones have shaped the hair care industry and the continuous research necessary to find innovative and environmentally friendly alternatives to silicones.

Influence of Silicones in the Hair Care Industry

Silicones have been important ingredients in hair care products since the 1950’s. Silicones or silicone derivatives are widely used in shampoos, conditioners, colorants, or styling products where they act as either emollients, humectants, film formers, antifoaming, anti-static, or binding agents [1]. These materials range from basic cyclic or linear polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to polyether-and amino-based fluids and silicone resins [2]. All silicones have a natural origin (silica), but synthetic processes are used to create the plethora of silicone ingredients used in cosmetics [3].

Linear PDMS, also known as dimethicone, is available in a range of molecular weights and viscosities and is most used in hair care applications. They provide excellent conditioning and performance which increases with higher viscosity. Use of dimethicone reduces combing forces, provides great sensory benefits like gliding, and adds suppleness to hair.

Phenyl trimethicone is also based on linear PDMS with the addition of phenyl groups [4]. This combination results in a higher refractive index that effectively coats the hair enhancing its shine and leaving hair soft. PDMS polymers are also highly water resistant which makes them effective agents in reducing tackiness of the formulations.

Cyclic polydimethylsiloxane (cyclic PDMS) or cyclomethicones fluids are characterized by ring structures typically containing three to six groups per ring [2]. These fluids decrease combing forces by reducing friction and surface energy [4]. Due to their volatility and fast spreading properties, they provide transient gloss to hair, leaving hair weightless and without any build-up. Cyclomethicones are more compatible with a wider range of ingredients versus linear PDMS.

Silicone gum/fluid blends provide a high level of substantive conditioning and frizz control while imparting a soft and lubricious feel [4]. There are silicones that are modified, like amodimethicones (amine-functionalized silicones) or alkylmethicones (replacing methyl groups on PDMs with alkyl chains) which are widely used in hair care applications as well. Amodimethicones impart specific benefits like color protection, heat protection, repair, reduced flyways, and deep conditioning.

The above-mentioned silicones are non-water soluble, whereas silicone polyethers are a family of water and/or alcohol soluble materials commonly used in shampoo formulations. They provide light to medium conditioning. In addition to acting as emulsifiers or co-emulsifiers, they can be used as resin modifiers to aid curl retention [2].

Moving Away from Silicones

While silicones have been highly effective hair care ingredients providing both functional and enhanced sensorial benefits, there is a movement away from their use due to a variety of reasons. There are long-term effects of silicone such as causing build-up, greasiness, and scalp accumulation [5]. Furthermore, concerns have been raised about their toxicity and effects on the environment.

The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) assessed the potential environmental effect of cyclic silicones: cyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and cyclopentasiloxane (D5). Based on the evaluation, D4 meets the criteria for identification as a persistent, bio accumulative and toxic (PBT), very persistent, very bioaccumulative (vPvB) substance and D5 meets the criteria for a vPvB substance [6]. After January 31st, 2020, the concentration of D4/D5 in rinse-off cosmetic products placed on the market should be less than 0.1% by weight of either substance. This has now been amended to include cyclohexasiloxane (D6) and is expected to be further restricted to include leave-on products [7].

Linear silicones are also not completely in the clear. They are suspected to be an environmental toxin and to be bioaccumulative. Dimethicone, Dimethicone Copolymer, Polysilicone-15 and other silicones are commonly considered to be microplastics [8,9]. In addition to being non-biodegradable, silicone oils also have an impact on the environment due to their industrial production process which has a high carbon footprint [10].

High performance, Natural and Sustainable Solutions

According to Mintel’s GNPD, between 2016 and 2021 the incidence of “silicone-free” claims for hair care products increased by over 200%. With regulations to control the usage of silicones in hair care products and a growing emphasis on naturality and sustainability, companies are looking for ingredients that serve as silicone alternatives. There is a huge focus on developing efficient and innovative ingredients that offer similar or better functional performance and with a better sensorial profile than silicones. A few ingredient solutions currently offered are highlighted below:

C13-C15 Alkane (plant-derived) is a sustainable natural silicone replacement developed via the fermentation of renewable sugar and grown sustainably without irrigation. This ingredient meets the performance of dimethicone in frizz reduction and color protection. It also matches the performance of amodimethicone in terms of wet/dry combability and provides an excellent sensorial profile. Ethyl Macadamiate is another silicone alternative of macadamia esters. It is biodegradable and provides the same silky, smooth after feel as cyclopentasiloxane [8]. A highly viscous, hydrogenated polyfarnesene presents interesting properties to replace Dimethiconol-based blends [11].

A prime function of silicones is to act as emollients. A vegetable emollient that is readily biodegradable and reduces significant carbon footprint is a perfect ally to protect hair from repeated mechanical stress and perform superior to cyclopentasiloxane [10]. An example is Hydrogenated Olive Oil which is an unsaponifiable squalene from olive oil and hydrogenated castor oil. It is yet another emollient offering to replace silicone and mineral oils that has great application in anti-frizz haircare products [12].

Reduced Silicone Solutions

It is not necessary to exclude all silicone products; cyclic free or synthetic silicones that meet REACH requirements can still be used as alternative solutions. Using low viscosity dimethicone and a mixture of C13-C14 isoparaffin can be considered as a replacement for cyclomethicones delivering a similar sensory profile [7]. Use of terminal hydroxy amino-modified silicone (THA) chemistry provides long-lasting conditioning and protects hair against breakage [13]. As for synthetic offerings, combining quaternary conditioning properties of cetrimonium chloride with a carboxylated silicone provides thermal protection and enhances the manageability of hair, while a complex of cetrimonium chloride with a water-soluble silicone provides great hair care benefits in different formats [7]. A combination of natural oils and a synthetic polymer can enhance and extend the benefits of natural oils to smooth and restore damaged hair and protect and reduce hair damage from different grooming regimens [12].

The industry also offers some unique solutions like quat-free polymeric conditioning additives that can provide multi-functional benefits to hair which are ideal for amodimethicone free formulations. Lastly, to reduce the carbon footprint, manufacturers are cutting down the high use of energy to produce dimethicones of various viscosities by using methanol obtained from biomass instead of fossil fuels [7].

Using Digital Tools to Source Ingredients

In the quest for clean and sustainable ingredients, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is playing a critical role in research and development. Machine learning is a powerful tool that can collect large amounts of data and provide detailed information about ingredient sourcing [11].  AI will be further integrated to explore unmet needs and help screen and identify innovative ingredients for various applications. Companies are also developing apps, using QR codes to trace ingredients, and promote ingredient transparency by providing origin and sustainable properties [11].

Conclusion

Over the last decade, there has been a strong shift in consumer product preferences with emphasis on personal wellbeing and the environment. The cosmetic industry has made great progress in offering many eco-friendly, clean, and sustainable solutions not only to replace silicones but also other ingredients that are currently being challenged. Companies are tasked to continue their efforts in developing eco-friendly and sustainable products that are highly effective in functional and sensorial performance to meet consumer needs.

References

  1. Kostic A, “Silicones in cosmetics and their impact on the environment”, Cos ACTIVE J. 2021;1:34–39
  2. Katie Schaefer, “Silicones in Hair Care: Making Innovative Solutions Possible”, Cosmetics & Toiletries (November,2008)
  3. Megan McIntyre, “Do Silicones Deserve Their Bad Rap? “, Beauty Independent, June 2019
  4. Bethany Johnson, Kevin Murphy and Feifei Lin, “How Silicones Shape the Hair Care Industry: A Review”, Cosmetics & Toiletries (June,2015)
  5. Solvay.com, “How Sulfate and silicone Alternatives Improve the Hair care Industry and Benefit Consumers”
  6. Mojgan Moddaresi, “Regulation Update: Cyclosiloxanes in the EU”, UL Prospector (February ,2018)
  7. Smooth closer: The latest in silicones and silicone alternatives”, Cosmetics Business (November,2021)
  8. SuperZero.com, “What are silicones and why are silicones used in the beauty industry? (April,2021)
  9. Plastic-TheHiddenBeautyIngredients.pdf (beatthemicrobead.org)
  10. “An alternate to silicone for hair care”, Personal Care Magazine (March,2019)
  11. “New generation of emollient showing promising results as a sustainable alternative to viscous silicones in hair care formulations: Seppic”, Cosmetics & Toiletries, Vol.137, No.6 (June 2022)
  12. John Woodruff, “Silicones and Alternatives 2018”, published by SPC2018
  13. Nisaraporn Suthiwangcharoen, Bethany Prime, Beth Johnson, and Dawn Carsten, “Simple and Sensorial Amino-modified silicone protects and revives hair”, Cosmetics & Toiletries, Vol.136, No.2 (February 2021)

 

Mythili Nori has worked in the Personal Care industry for over a decade. Her expertise is in Product Claim Substantiation and Data Science. In her current role at BASF, she is responsible for Physical Claim Substantiation & Sensory testing for Hair & Skin Care. Prior to joining BASF, she spent 5 years at TRI/Princeton as a Senior Research Associate, supporting claim substantiation and fundamental research activities for textile and hair surfaces. She earned a Bachelor of Technology in Chemical Engineering from India and received Master of Science in Chemical Engineering at North Carolina Agriculture & Technical State University focusing on purification of drinking water.

PPARs reemerging as a skin wellness target in cosmetics

by james.runkle@drummondst.com james.runkle@drummondst.com No Comments

PPARs reemerging as a skin wellness target in cosmetics

Written by Marc Cornell, Mar-Key Consulting LLC

Cosmetics are continuing their marvelous evolution with new scientific findings and breakthrough innovations. Sometimes we need to look back to find the genesis of a current marketing or positioning trend. Take a step back with me to the late 20th century, where a young researcher (MC) was being educated in the biology of wound healing. During this time, I became aware of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). PPAR-alpha expression plays a role in the inflammatory stage of wound healing. Later I learned wound healing shares many biologic pathways with anti-age biology.  Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors is a mouthful, right? Let’s dial it back bit and keep the PPAR focus on our body’s largest organ, the skin.

PPAR’s are ligand inducible transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. The key isoforms of PPARs are notated as (alpha), (beta/delta) and (gamma). These forms can up regulate or down regulate many cellular and metabolic processes (cellular differentiation, proliferation, lipid homeostasis and energy metabolism). These functions are critical to our body and its skin’s immune system, epidermal barrier function and development of pro-inflammatory signals. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are also involved in regulating glucose, lipid homeostasis and modulate mitochondrial function. (1)  It is obvious that regulation of PPAR signaling to various biological systems is an opportunity for medicine and cosmetic science

In some publications, regulation of PPAR signaling have been linked to disease pathogenesis. These ailments have complex causes involving genetic, environmental, and nutritional factors, PPARS are just a part of the pathway. (2) In cosmetic science we are careful to draw the line between drug and cosmetic claims. With that said, there are numerous scientific studies elucidating shared connections between drug and cosmetic active biologic modes of action.

Now we take a partial deep dive on the FAQ’s for PPARS.  From there we will highlight how targeting PPAR’s has been around for some time in cosmetics. More recently these chemistries are trending in a big way as clinical branded cosmetics remerge as part of the wellness positioning.

How can cosmetic science leverage PPARS to facilitate skin wellness? We start our PPAR discussion by looking at the skin barrier function. This area of skin biology is also part of a recent trend towards positioning and the minimization of environmental stressors on the exposome. The exposome is defined as the measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime and how those exposures relate to health.  PPAR activation has been shown to have an important role in skin barrier function by regulating differentiation and lipid synthesis in keratinocytes. (3) This fact fits nicely into homeostasis wellness positioning.

PPAR activation takes place through heterodimerization.  Simply put, you need 2 ligands to come together on the DNA to initiate gene regulation.  PPAR activators are already being used in areas of cosmetic science application.  Botanical extracts have been shown to activate PPAR in the stimulation of collagen in skin (4). There is also evidence that PPARs may be used as an alternative to retinoids in skin care. (5) PPARs have an important effect in keratinocyte homeostasis, suggesting a role in diseases such as psoriasis. (6)   PPAR acts directly to negatively regulate gene expression of proinflammatory genes in a ligand-dependent manner by antagonizing the activities of transcription factors such as members of the NF-kB and AP-1 families. (7).  One very popular cosmetic application is the use of omega 3 fatty acids.  These are popular natural ligands for PPARα receptors and are key to preventing/reducing inflammation.

One critical factor in attempting to utilize pathways linked to PPARs is in the understanding of the up or down regulation of these biochemicals. Typical of any biologic system there is potential for biofeedback, so understanding the pathways and assay methodologies are important. Good news is gene expression and cell culture models now allow the high throughput analysis of materials which may take part in PPAR regulation. This fact and the numerous peer review publications give the cosmetic chemist a boost in the study of PPARs.

In closing I provide just a few key words for continued education on PPARs.

Links between PPAR and:

a) Endocannabinoid receptor system
b) Hyaluronic acid
c) Wound healing
d) Retinoid receptor system
e) UV modulated inflammation
f) Inflamaging
g) Mitochondrial function
h) and MORE!

  1. Ting-Wei Lee, Kuan-Jen Bai, Ting-I Lee, Tze-Fan Chao, Yu-Hsun Kao & Yi-Jen Chen : PPARs modulate cardiac metabolism and mitochondrial function in diabetes Journal of Biomedical Science volume 24, Article number: 5 (2017)
  2. Kersten S, Desvergne B, Wahli W. : Roles of PPARs in health and disease. Nature. 2000; 405: 421–4. NATURE
  3. Su-Hyoun Chon , Ruth Tannahill, Xiang Yao, Michael D Southall, Apostolos Pappas. Keratinocyte differentiation and upregulation of ceramide synthesis induced by an oat lipid extract via the activation of PPAR pathways , Exp Dermatol. 2015 Apr;24 (4):290-5
  4. George P. Majewski1 | Smrita Singh2 | Krzysztof Bojanowski :Olive leaf-derived PPAR agonist complex induces collagen IV synthesis in human skin models, Int J Cosmet Sci. 2021;43:662–676
  5. John Simon Craw, George Majewski: Coding Skin for Care: PPAR Ligands as Retinoid Alternatives and Adjuvants—Cosmetic and Toiletries, Jan 6th, 2022
  6. Emerson de Andrade Lima1 et al : Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists (PPARs): a promising prospect in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis* An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88(6):1029-35.
  7. Yuval Ramot et al, The role of PPAR-mediated signaling in skin biology and pathology: new targets and opportunities for clinical dermatology : Experimental Dermatology, 2015, 24, 245–251

 

Written by Marc Cornell, Mar-Key Consulting LLC

Marc Cornell, BS. is a consultant at Mar-key Consulting LLC where he services the consumer product industry with innovative formulation concepts.  During his thirty-year career he has worked in an R&D role for large (Merck, L’Oreal, Bristol Meyers Squibb, Union Carbide) and medium sized companies (Neostrata, ChemAid Labs, KV Pharmaceutical). For the last ­20 years he has worked primarily on the research and formulation development of “Cosmeceuticals” for various brands (Skinceuticals, Neostrata, Dr. Perricone, Biomedic, Strivectin, and La Roche Posay). In this role he collaborated with researchers in skin biology and clinical testing to design, formulate and test novel cosmetic active delivery vehicles. Marc’s work has been patented and published in peer review journals and trade publications.

 

Natural Ingredients in Cosmetics

by james.runkle@drummondst.com james.runkle@drummondst.com No Comments

Natural ingredients offer a myriad of possibilities for developing effective cosmetic products. Their popularity has greatly increased over the past two decades in part due to a major shift in public opinion about the environment, human health, and wellbeing. Plant ingredients have been shown to be effective treatments of the skin for a number of conditions including erythema, hyperpigmentation, photoaging, photocarcinogenesis, and photoimmunosuppression. Nowadays, botanical ingredients are found in almost every type of cosmetic product for the skin. In addition to plants, minerals are also natural ingredients. Some of the most common ones found in modern-day cosmetic products consist of iron oxides, zinc oxide, and titanium oxide, which are mostly used in sunscreen formulations.

Historical Perspective of Natural Ingredients in Cosmetics

Natural ingredients have been used in cosmetic products since antiquity. The early Egyptians were renowned for their makeup preparations and other cosmetic ingredients used to cleanse and scent the body. The most common cosmetic potions consisted of eye paints, facial paints, oils, and solid fats (ointments) [1]. As an example, kohl is a paste/powder that was commonly used as eye shadow and is reported to have been made with galena ore, which contains lead sulfide. A paste made from malachite, a green ore of copper, was also used to color the eyes of Egyptians. Some of these ingredients probably caused adverse reactions, or could have led to serious disease after prolonged use.

Hair and nail dyeing in ancient Egypt was achieved using henna, which was extracted from the plant Lawsonia inermis, also known as the Egyptian privet. Henna was also popular in ancient India and China as a hair dyeing agent. In India, henna was also used to paint designs on the hands and feet in the art known as mehndi [2]. The early Egyptians also used fats and oils to apply to skin and hair, protecting them from the powerful sun rays and arid climate. The Egyptians were also very astute on the use of fragrances. They used many different types of herbs and oils, such as aloe, chamomile, lavender, myrrh, olive oil, peppermint, sesame oil, and thyme [3].

Turmeric, a traditional Indian spice from the root of Curcuma longa, was commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine as a therapeutic agent. It contains curcumin, which has anti-inflammatory properties. In recent years, turmeric has become an extremely popular cosmetic ingredient for skin care preparations. In traditional Chinese culture, skin was treated oils and herbs. Panax ginseng is one of the most popular ingredients in ancient herbal therapy, and is still widely used today. Rice powder was also popular and used to paint the face, serving as a form of makeup that provided a whitish appearance and had the benefit of removing excessive oils. The use of nail polish dates back to ancient China, using egg whites, flowers, and beeswax [4]. Unfortunately, not all members of society were permitted to paint their nails. It was reserved for royals, who painted their nails gold and silver, and other members of the upper echelon of society.

Natural ingredients were also used in cosmetics in other periods of history as well. In biblical times, the Hebrews used oils obtained from various plant and animal sources as emollients to protect the skin from the arid environment and intense solar radiation. In addition, red ochre (an iron oxide) was used for painting the lips, ash and beeswax for painting the nails, and herbal perfumes were applied to the skin and clothing [5]. During the early Roman Empire, Pliny the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus), who was a prolific author, naturalist, and philosopher, wrote about the control of perspiration using a mixture of rue, rose oil, and aloe vera [6].

In the western tradition, the use of natural ingredients in cosmetics continued through the Middle Ages and Renaissance all the way to the 19th century, although the overall use of cosmetics fluctuated throughout history most likely due to sociological and economic factors. Curiously, at the dawn of the 20th century, color cosmetics were not very popular in western societies, and even frowned upon for women to wear in public. In the United States and many other western cultures, this attitude began to change significantly as movie stars began wearing makeup products in Hollywood films. During this period, there was a flurry of activity in the development of highly functional synthetic ingredients that enjoyed widespread use in cosmetic products. However, the most recent natural ingredient movement began to take place in the late 1990s and early 2000s as the population became more concerned with health, wellbeing, and global environmental conditions.

Botanical Ingredients

The increasing awareness of the health benefits of phytochemicals has led to a transformation in the cosmetic industry [7]. The recent explosion of the use of herbal ingredients in cosmetic products began with ingredients that offered improvement in the physiological condition of the skin by treatment with formulas containing plant ingredients [8]. This movement evolved to include a greater effort to replace conventional synthetic ingredients that carried other functions in the formula, such as rheology modifiers, emollients, cleansing agents, etc. [9]. Today, there are even some forms of cosmetic packaging that are based on natural or naturally derived ingredients.

There are numerous plant ingredients that are used in cosmetic products for their cosmeceutical properties. Some of the most common ingredients include Aloe vera, Camellia sinensis (tea polyphenols), Capparis spinosa flower buds, Culcitium reflexum H.B.K. leaf, Curcuma longa (curcumin), French maritime pine bark (pycnogenol) Gingko biloba, pomegranate fruit, red orange, Sanguisorba officinalis L. root, Sedum telephium L. leaf, and Silybum marianum (Silymarin). Extracts of natural products contain polyphenols and other phytonutrients that have beneficial effects for the skin. Plants evolved to produce these ingredients to protect themselves from environmental insults, including harmful UV radiation.

Many botanicals have been used for millennia in traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurveda. Nowadays, there is a flurry of activity in the skin care market with similar types of ingredients, due to a growing body of scientific evidence demonstrating their utility as skin therapeutic agents. Among other things, botanical ingredients have shown promise as anti-inflammatories for skin to treat rosacea, preventative agents against melanoma, bioactives for the treatment of skin aging, and protective agents against UV-induced immunosuppression and photocarcinogenesis [10].

Incorporating plant ingredients into cosmetics can also present challenges to the formulator in terms of stability and delivery [11]. For this reason, there have been many efforts focused on developing carrier systems for botanical ingredients [10, 12]. Most of these carriers are emulsions, vesicular systems, or lipid particulate systems. Emulsions for this type of application usually are microemulsions, nanoemulsions, micro-nanoemulsions, multilayer emulsions, or Pickering emulsions. Common vesicular systems consist of liposomes, ethosomes, phytosomes, and transferosomes. The two most popular lipid particulate systems are solid-lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers.

Polysaccharide Ingredients

Polysaccharides from many natural sources are used in cosmetics. They are often added to formulas as rheology modifiers, but may also be used for a variety of other functions, such as providing moisture to the skin or enhancing the styling properties of hair. The most common polysaccharides found in cosmetic products are agar, alginate, carrageenan, derivatives of cellulose (e.g., hydroxyethylcellulose), chitin, chitosan, dextrin, guar gum derivatives, gum arabic, hyaluronic acid, pectins, starch derivatives, and xanthan gum. In addition to the applications already mentioned, polysaccharides are also found in masks and shampoos/body washes (coacervate agent). A number of different polysaccharides may also be included in personal care products for their antibacterial, antiviral, anticoagulant, anticancer, antioxidant, and immunomodulating activity [13]. Overall, they have a long and safe history of use in cosmetic products.

Essential Oils

Essential oils enjoy widespread utility in cosmetic products due to their pleasant odor and biological activity [14-16]. They are highly concentrated liquid mixtures of small molecules (mostly aromatic compounds, terpenes, and terpenoids) extracted from the bark, buds, flowers, fruits, leaves, rhizomes, roots, and seeds of plants [14]. Some of the most common essential oils found in cosmetic products are citronellol, citrus, eucalyptus, geraniol, lavender, limonene, linalool, and tea tree [16]. If formulated at low concentrations, essential oils are relatively safe. However, at higher concentrations their use may result in skin sensitivity reactions and even the development of allergies [15]. In addition to their aromatic characteristics, essential oils have analgesic, antibiotic, and antiviral properties. For this reason, there is a great deal of interest in aroma therapy and its positive health benefits.

Toxicological Considerations

There is some concern about the safety and toxicology of natural ingredients. This mostly stems from the presence of ingredients that are not listed on the labels of cosmetic products. For example, citral, farnesol, limonene, and limanol—fragrance compounds present in many natural ingredient products—can illicit allergic reactions [17]. Furthermore, there could be many molecules in the formula that are only listed as one ingredient. On the other hand, it has been argued that exposure to natural toxic substances in personal care products is probably not the principal route of exposure. Rather, direct exposure to vegetation and agricultural crops is considered the most dominant pathway [18]. Skin sensitization is another concern with the use of botanical ingredients [19]. As an example, the Feverfew plant (Tanacetum parthenium), known for its anti-inflammatory properties, contains parthenolide, which is a potent skin sensitization agent. Therefore, being able to produce parthenolide-free bioactives is a key challenge to provide a non-sensitizing product for skin care [20, 21].

Concluding Remarks

Natural ingredients have a long history in cosmetics products. Overall, there has been a great deal of renewed interest in their inclusion in contemporary personal care formulas. Combined with modern analytical and process technology, today’s cosmetic chemist has the opportunity to participate in the large-scale transformation of the personal care industry.

 

References

  1. Lucas, A., Cosmetics, perfumes, and incense in ancient Egypt. J Egypt Arch, 1930. 16(1/2): p. 41-53.
  2. Nayak, M. and V. Ligade, History of cosmetics in Egypt, India, and China. J Cosmet Sci, 2021. 72: p. 432-441.
  3. Chaudhri, S. and N. Jain, History of cosmetics. Asian J Pharm, 2009. 3(3): p. 164-167.
  4. Madnani, N. and K. Khan, Nail cosmetics. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol, 2012. 78: p. 309-317.
  5. Parish, L. and J. Crissey, Cosmetics: A historical review. Clin Dermatol, 1988. 6(3): p. 1-4.
  6. Bostock, J. and H. Riley, Rue: eighty-four remedies, in Remedies derived from the garden plants. 1855, Taylor and Francis: London, UK.
  7. Dini, I. and S. Laneri, The new challenge of green cosmetics: natural food ingredients for cosmetic formulations. Molecules, 2021. 26: p. 3921.
  8. González-Minero, F. and L. Bravo-Díaz, The use of plants in skin-care products, cosmetics, and fragrances: Past and present. Cosmetics, 2018. 5: p. 50.
  9. Bom, S., M. Fitas, A. Martins, P. Pinto, H. Ribeiro, and J. Marto, Replacing synthetic ingredients by sustainable natural alternatives: A case study using topical O/W emulsions. Molecules, 2020. 25: p. 4887.
  10. McMullen, R., Antioxidants and the Skin. 2nd ed. 2019, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  11. Hoang, H., J. Moon, and Y. Lee, Natural antioxidants from plant extracts in skincare cosmetics: recent applications, challenges, and perspectives. Cosmetics, 2021. 8: p. 106.
  12. Yang, S., L. Liu, J. Han, and Y. Tang, Encapsulating plant ingredients for dermocosmetic application: An updated review of delivery systems and characterization techniques. Int J Cosmet Sci, 2020. 42: p. 16-28.
  13. Ahsan, H., The significance of complex polysaccharides in personal care formulations. J Carbohydr Chem, 2019. 38: p. 213-233.
  14. Abate, L., A. Bachheti, R. Kumar Bachheti, A. Husen, G. M, and D. Pandey, Potential role of forest-based plants in essential oil production: An approach to cosmetic and personal health care applications, in Non-Timber Forest Products: Food, Healthcare and Industrial Applications, A. Husen, R. Kumar Bachheti, and A. Bachheti, Editors. 2021, Sprinter Nature: Cham, Switzerland. p. 1-18.
  15. Sarkic, A. and I. Stappen, Essential oils and their single compounds in cosmetics—A critical review. Cosmetics, 2018. 5: p. 11.
  16. Sharmeen, J., F. Mahomoodally, G. Zengin, and F. Maggi, Essential oils as natural sources of fragrance compounds for cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Molecules, 2021. 26: p. 666.
  17. Klaschka, U., Natural personal care products—analysis of ingredient lists and legal situation. Environ Sci Eur, 2016. 28: p. 8.
  18. Bucheli, T., B. Strobel, and H. Hansen, Personal care products are only one of many exposure routes of natural toxic substances to humans and the environment Cosmetics, 2018. 5: p. 10.
  19. Puginier, M., A. Roso, H. Groux, C. Gerbeix, and F. Cottrez, Strategy to avoid skin sensitization: application to botanical cosmetic ingredients. Cosmetics, 2022. 9(2): p. 40.
  20. Koganov, M., Parthenolide free bioactive ingredients from Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) and processes for their production and use. U.S. Patent No. 7,537,791. 2009.
  21. Sur, R., K. Martin, F. Liebel, P. Lyte, S. Shapiro, and M. Southall, Anti-inflammatory activity of parthenolide-depleted Feverfew (Tancetum parthenium). Inflammopharmacology, 2009. 17(1): p. 42-49.

 

The use of in-vitro modeling to predict clinical outcome

by james.runkle@drummondst.com james.runkle@drummondst.com No Comments

The use of in-vitro modeling to predict clinical outcome: A users guide to technology development

In-vitro models have been a staple of technology development as well as a tool for mapping mechanistic understanding of skin biology.  Their complexity has evolved over time to become quite predictive to clinical outcomes.  In-vitro modeling is a powerful solution for driving product development, innovation and claim substantiation, and it allows researchers to screen technologies as well as position them against new or novel mechanisms.  The NYCSCC is offering a mini-symposium at this year’s Supplier’s Day (May 3rd and 4th) to present various in-vitro models currently available to our industry using a cross section of speakers from both academia, industry suppliers and testing firms.  (See the end of the blog for a list of topics being presented.)  The following is a good primer for those interested in leveraging in-vitro data for technology development.

In-vitro models are the result of many of the inventions we learned about in science class at an early age.  Here is a brief history of how we got here: First was the invention of the microscope by A. Van Leeuwenhoek in 1676, then Schleiden and Schwann’s formulated cell theory in 1839,  Roux’s first method of cell culture in 1885,  aseptic techniques for cell culture in 1912, establishment of the first mouse fibroblast cell in 1943, the first immortal human cell line known as “HeLa” by George Gey in 1951, the finite life span of human cells defined by Hayflick in 1965, the first therapeutic protein manufactured in cell culture for human clinical trial in 1983, culture human embryonic stems cells isolated by Thomson & Gearhart in 1998 and finally 3D tissue and organ bioprinting techniques introduced in 2010.

At present, it is no longer possible to use animal testing for ingredients and cosmetic products in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member states since 2009. This mandate has served as an “evolutionary pressure” on the industry to leverage in-vitro modeling as an alternative to animal use in in our industry, leading to the development and moderate acceptance of in-vitro tests that are used to determine the safety and efficacy of ingredients and topical products.

The advantages of in-vitro testing are:

1) Reducing the use of human subjects in the early stages of R&D projects; this not only has logistical and ethical benefit in terms of time and money but also removes the regulatory and safety aspects when discovery is the main strategic driver.

2) In-vitro modeling can be designed for high throughput screening of compounds/technologies. As a result, modeling this way saves time and money.

3) Reducing clinical variability as conditions are better controlled and repeatable.

4) Little to no testing regulations; however, sound experimental design including appropriate controls, benchmarks, time points and culture conditions are paramount to success.

The most saliant disadvantage of using in-vitro testing models is that results and findings need to be confirmed in/on more complex systems.  For example, if you screen for gene effects in monolayer cultures, one will need to confirm protein expression to confirm the gene expression profile.  Furthermore, more complex culture systems such as 3D culture models or ex-vivo biopsy modeling or human testing would be the logical next step to evaluate bioavailability, bioconversion, and efficacy.

The latter would require an intermediate step of safety assessment, ethics review (IRB) and cost analysis.  Furthermore, in-vitro modeling does require dedicated space and personnel.  This is certainly a capital expenditure; however, there are 3rd party laboratories and collaborations with academia available for almost every need if you look hard enough.

The ability to customize a culture system to fit one’s needs is very encouraging. In-vitro models range from simple monolayer systems to complex muti-tissue engineered models.  Advances in maintaining cells in culture are continuously improving, allowing for data generation that closely mimics clinical results.  The advent of bio chambers, flexible substrates and precisely defined medias have advanced the understanding of cell biology exponentially.  The technics for retrieving and cultivating keratinocytes, fibroblast, melanocytes and dendric cells from skin are commonplace in cell culture facilities around the globe resulting on less reliance on transformed cell lines (those that are immortal) which have a poor correlation to clinical outcome in many cases.  3D skin models with natural human features are best used to analyze ingredients and formulations for this reason. Skin irritation and toxicity tend to be represented by less stringent biomimicry, but this too is evolving to more relevant culture systems.

The vast number of possible applications and products in our industry can target different body areas including intact skin, thin skin (under eye), oily skin (face vs abdomen), sun exposed vs sun protected, healthy or impaired skin which come with many specific characteristics in composition, structure, and function as a primary focus.

In-vitro reconstructed human tissue models are recognized as being sensitive and reliable for areas outside of skin in a pre-clinical environment. Using 3D human reconstructed models such as gingival and vaginal systems can model mucosal tolerance, “immature” epidermal models can mimic infant/baby skin, and culture conditions can be designed to impair function (missing ceramide production) or condition (sensitive skin) to find solutions to the impairment such as in barrier function.

Topical applications represent a vast range of formulation options, accounting for multiple product types focusing on health, gender, age conditions, and body targets.  The constant quest for innovation, whether through the search for new molecules or the extended use of old ones, pushes our industry to take many factors into account in the early stages of development.  Multiple models of different variations can be applied in sequence to the same project scope representing multiple but independent evaluations and approaches simultaneously.

Manufacturers are also looking to in-vitro modeling to satisfy environmental impact effects of their ingredients and products.  Reef safe, biodegradability and species toxicology are becoming commonplace in raw material questionnaire surveys and in environmentally responsible platforms within many companies.

The list of in-vitro models is endless; however, there are a handful of go-to models that make up many R&D arsenals.  Reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) is a very common model that uses keratinocytes harvested from surgically excised tissue.  When these cells are cultured at the air/media interface of a culture well, they naturally form a representative viably functioning epidermis.  Full thickness skin models (FTSK) are composed of both a dermal compartment containing human skin fibroblasts embedded in a collagen matrix and human keratinocytes seeded on top to form the epidermis.  Ex-vivo skin explants use full thickness whole skin biopsies in culture, which allows the effect of individual ingredients and formulations, transdermal delivery, topical penetration, and percutaneous absorption to be tested in an environment more closely mimicking normal skin. Even though this model system is the closest to intact skin, it has its limitations.  Recent in-vitro modeling of neurodermatology has been achieved by generating a co-culture system of sensory neurons and skin cells, which can simulate in vivo human skin and provide innovative solutions to neuro sensory conditions such as itch, neuro inflammation and pain. Pigmented epidermis model composed of normal human keratinocytes cultivated in the presence of melanocytes of phototypes in the basal layer resulting in a gradient of melanin production when exposed to varying degrees of UV, IR and HEV light. Atopy skin models recreate conditions of this disease state via a co-culture of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, dendritic cells, and T-cells which can be applied to screen therapeutics and to gain a better understanding of the biological mechanisms involved.

The future state will focus on using pluripotent stem cells in a variety of culture conditions and matrixes to reconstitute tissues of interest, thus, more accurately modeling solutions for aged, damaged, or dysfunctional tissue.  The idea of in-situ (to examine the phenomenon exactly in place where it occurs) bioprinting is already being considered for as a research tool  for therapy and the results obtained in that area seem to be promising. It is possible that soon, use of skin bioprinters will be a useful tool in surgical reconstruction and a preferred form of therapy in wound and burns treatment.  Alternatively, the idea of bioprinting on a cellular level can further the customization of in-vitro modeling. The possibilities are endless.

Mini-Symposium: “In-Vitro Modeling to Predict Clinical Outcome”

Michael Anthonavage, Moderator

Presentation topics

  1. 3D Tissue Model applications: Genetically engineered 3D skin models for the development of cosmetic products and pharmaceutical drugs Research Focus: Human 3D tissue models
  2. Innate Immunity modeling: Testing the Skin’s Innate Immune Response via In-Vitro and Non-Invasive Clinical Testing Methods
  3. Sunscreen modeling: Bioequivalence Efficacy Test for Sunscreens: Alternative SPF Test Methods Validation
  4. Use of in-silico/vitro modeling for barrier and moisture: Skin Barrier and Hydration: Solutions from in silico & in vitro testing to clinical bioanalysis and imaging
  5. Sensorial modeling in-vitro: The interest of sensorial evaluation in cosmetics: integration of the sensory neuron compartment on unique in-vitro models.
  6. Bioavailability: In-vitro Studies of Skin Deposition & Permeation and Their Practicality
  7. Delivery modeling: Advanced Delivery Modeling Techniques – A Runway to Success
  8. Total exposure modeling: Scalable in silico simulation for human total body exposure prediction using in vitro transdermal and respiratory tract permeability assays
  9. Modeling of lipogenesis: In Vitro Model Challenges for Skin Lipid Measurements in the Clinic
  10. 3D bioprinting: Creation of the most sophisticated 3D Bioprinted full skin models, with immunization, pigmentation, vascularization, and oil function to advance cosmetics efficacy testing.
  11. Systemic Disease modeling for skin: Diabetic Skin: A new target for cosmetic products
  12. Tissue engineering: Latest advances in tissue engineering: from normal to compromised skin

Michael Anthonavage has 26 years of experience in personal care product development and a career spanning background in skin biology, education, and medical technology. Michael has extensive knowledge in product development in personal care product design and specializes in R&D to marketing translation as well as claims validation both in-vitro and in-vivo. He is also an engaging public speaker and product technology advocate with an ability to marry complex ideas and concepts to various consumer needs.   Michael is currently the VP of Operations & Technology at Eurofins CRL, Inc. as well as an educator in herbal studies, clinical lab interpretation, product development strategies, physiology, and skin biology.  Michael’s previous positions have focused on product development for multi-national corporations in Consumer Products and has held R&D leadership positions at several industry ingredient suppliers where he has championed innovative ingredient portfolios.  Michael is currently on the NYC SCC Scientific Advisory Board and has given several lectures for the SCC over the years.   He has a variety of publications and patents to his name and continues to be an influential speaker and educator in the personal care, bioinstrumentation, and skin testing arena.

 

SOFW.com – Interview with Giorgio Dell’Acqua, 2022 NYSCC Chair

by james.runkle@drummondst.com james.runkle@drummondst.com No Comments

Interview with Giorgio Dell’Acqua, 2022 NYSCC Chair

Giorgio Dell’Acqua
2022 NYSCC Chair

Last November the Chapter successfully organized the first ‘back-in-person’ NYSCC Suppliers’ Day after the pandemic break. How was the turnout for attendees and exhibitors?

It was incredible and extremely rewarding to meet face-to face and be reunited with so many members and colleagues. This important event, November 10th and 11th in 2021, attracted 6,807 registrants and 392 exhibitors and they were all eager to find solutions and move forward in their businesses. Noteworthy were the international participants, from 30 countries, who were able to attend despite the travel restrictions.

At the conclusion of this Suppliers’ Day we also had a “Virtual Month of Beauty” that captured even more new registrants and fostered continued engagement.

A big shout to Susanna Fernandes, the 2021 NYSCC Chair, and the entire Suppliers’ Day team for navigating through such unfamiliar territory and being able to bring this edition of Suppliers’ Day to life!

What will the main focus of the 2022 NYSCC Suppliers’ Day on May 3-4, 2022?

The theme this year is “Your Destination for Science & Sustainable Sourcing Solutions.”  We are getting back to basics while viewing all chemistry and formulating through a sustainable lens. This will be evident on the exhibit floor and woven throughout the conference program. We will have subject matter experts in the field of digitalization, sustainability, clean beauty and advanced scientific testing, to name a few, presenting during the show and part of our comprehensive educational program.  All designed to inspire creativity, ingenuity, and innovation.

NYSCC also formed a Diversity & Inclusion Committee this year that will be involved in programming and activities at Suppliers’ Day to engage attendees in conversation about ideas that provide leadership in the cosmetics community around diversity and inclusion.

We cannot just be focused on the science of the ingredients and formulations without considering the impact of their sourcing both on the environment and society.

What can attendees expect this year?

As the only event in North America for ingredients, formulations, and delivery innovations, NYSCC Suppliers’ Day will have something for everyone.

It will be the best forum in North America for the latest trends, scientific findings, global ingredients, raw materials and solutions that will invigorate formulations and accelerate beauty and personal care product developments.

From end-to-end of the Javits Center, scientific and sustainable sourcing solutions that are impacting product development and brand creations will be discussed, experienced and on full display.

Suppliers’ Day this year will also feature 50+ individual conference sessions and curated educational programs, with 430+ exhibitors with more than 8,000 attendees expected to attend from all over the world.  Dynamic areas on the show floor, that once again is expanded into the D Hall at the Javits Center, will provide enhanced experiential learning including the classic Future Chemists Workshop, Presentation Theater, and the return of the INDIE 360 Pavilion. New this year will be a Poster Showcase, featuring the latest scientific findings and ingredients and formulation breakthroughs.

Suppliers’ Day for attendees will help catapult professional advancement and truly be non-stop learning, discovery, and business building.

What will be some highlights of the conference program?

NYSCC continues to grow and enhance the educational component of Suppliers’ Day.  This year we are excited to present our hallmark programs with updated content designed to help those involved in formulations, sourcing, and marketing beauty and personal care products achieve their business objectives including:

  • Discover Sustainability a series of quick but powerful presentations from leading companies that are successfully implementing clean beauty, green formulation, bio-based and cradle-to-cradle certifications, ethical sourcing, and more.
  • Digital Age of Beauty focusing on current strategies and innovations that influence product development, and speed to market. The latest digital tools and techniques that drive, measure and analyze consumer engagement and the demands they set forth will also be presented.
  • World of Chemistry delivering a global perspective and discussion on raw materials, solutions, formulation, and regulations.  Presenters encompass leading experts from countries and regions that are defining the beauty and personal care landscape.
  • Show Floor Presentation Theater complimentary to all attendees, provides insightful, leading-edge supplier presentations and interactive talks.

After last year’s success, INDIE 360 will return and we will be working with IBA (Independent Beauty Association) and other new partners on creating a program that focuses on every angle of the business.  A highlight will be brand founders sharing their candid stories and experiences as well as challenges, opportunities and pathways to success. There will also be a spotlight on how INDIE companies are utilizing unique ingredients or innovative ingredient combinations.

PCPC will also be back to present essential content on cosmetic regulation, safety assessment, and quality assurance.

The NYSCC Scientific Advisory Committee will present two conference sessions that take deep dives into topics that are relevant and timely to chemists and R&D teams and the pre-conference SCC CEP Courses will take place on May 2nd.

We also will continue our nurturing and support of the next generation of chemists with the expansion of our Mentor/Mentee Program and the Future Chemists Workshop with even more colleges and universities participating.  The co-sponsored SCC & NYSCC Career Development Day will also be part of the event

Of course we will also have our Industry Awards Night celebration after the first day of the show.  This year, the finalists of the CEW Beauty Creators Supplier’s Award will be revealed. Industry Awards Night is a great event for renewing partnerships and creating new ones and truly acknowledges the important drivers of innovation and exemplifies Suppliers’ Day core spirit.

Will the event be hybrid?

Yes we will offer a virtual day on May 9th. This will literally be an immersive experience with attendees feeling like they entered the Javits Convention Center in NYC and will give them a 360 degree view of the actual exhibits and expo floor from their desktops or mobile devices.

We also have a platform that makes it easy for exhibitors to provide the same assets and product information for both the live and virtual events and to even schedule appointments with the virtual attendees.

Some of the educational programs offered during the in-person Suppliers’ Day will also be available on May 9th.

Thank you very much for this interview and I hope to see many of your readers at Suppliers’ Day this year.  Please visit www.nyscc.org/suppliersday/ for more information and to register.

Naturally derived rheology modifiers and emulsion stabilizers

by james.runkle@drummondst.com james.runkle@drummondst.com No Comments

Modern-day formulators relied on polymers to stabilize o/w emulsions much more than surfactants.  The introduction of polyacrylic acid-derived polymers many years ago enabled formulators to develop stable emulsions with minimal effort.  In realty, formulators used polymers as their primary stabilizers, and they selected the surfactant and esters to tailor the texture and sensorial properties of emulsions.  In fact, polyacrylic acid-based polymers enabled steric stabilization of emulsions due to their anionic charge and contributed to the entropic stabilization due to their ability to bind water very efficiently.  The art of formulation using the concepts of Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance (HLB) was almost extinct and was replaced by the fast-paced polymeric stabilization.

In recent years, consumers have been driving the trend of naturality demanding manufacturers to formulate their products with naturally-derived ingredients rather than fossil-based ones.  This push towards naturality is forcing formulators to remove their fossil-derived polymers and replace them with naturally-derived counterparts.  At the same time, formulators are also replacing their efficient polyoxyethylene-based (POE) surfactants with polyglyceryl based ones, as POE is no longer in vogue with some consumer groups.  One can say that formulators who have been spoiled for many years with ease of formulation and guaranteed stability outcome are faced with one of their biggest challenge in recent memory.

The search for an identical, naturally-derived replacement of polyacrylic acid-based polymer has created a frenzy among finished-goods companies and raw material suppliers to try to fill the gap.  The first instinct was for formulators to go back and rely on the good old stand-by, xanthan gum.  Xanthan is produced by fermentation, so it is considered naturally-derived.  It is used in relatively low concentrations and has good yield value.  Although xanthan gum has many good attributes, it still has several draw backs.  First, its impact on viscosity is minimal and does not build it efficiently.  Second, it adds a negative slip and tack to formulations that is quite undesirable.  Third, its effect on stability is positive but not quite as good as polyacrylic-based polymers.  Formulators need to make several trials before achieving good stability with xanthan gum.

Another stand-by ingredient is starch.  Starches have been used to thicken and generate yield in emulsions for many years.  An example of a commonly used starch is hydroxypropyl starch phosphate.  Starches typically work through a wide pH range (3-9) and have good salt tolerance.  However, starches are not efficient thickeners as they have to be used between 1 and 4% w/w in the emulsion to impart stability.  When a high level of polymer is used in emulsions it not only reduces the available water for the surfactant to behave properly but it also imparts a certain texture to the formulation which might not be very desirable.

Recently, several companies introduced a variety of gums to stabilize emulsions.  Most recently Diutan gum was introduced.  Diutan is a high molecular weight polysaccharide (5 MM Dalton) with a relatively low charge density on the backbone.  The backbone is made up of four-sugars, namely glucose, glucoronate, glucose and rhamnose and a two-sugar side chain of rhamnose.  Diutan seems to be electrolyte tolerant and builds higher viscosities than xanthan gum when combined with a low level of electrolytes.  However, it does not build enough viscosity on its own based on literature.

Several manufacturers tried combining several natural gums to achieve good emulsion esthetics and stability.  One manufacturer combined xanthan gum, with sclerotium gum, and pullulan.  Other manufacturers are combining acacia and gellan gum, xanthan and guar gum, as well as acacia and xanthan gum.  Such combinations could be good options, but finished-goods formulators tend to lean more towards single ingredient substitutes as they do not crowd the ingredient label and offer greater flexibility in formulation.  In addition, many of these combinations have similar esthetics and do not offer a robust stability profile.

More recently, a new grade of cellulose gum was launched.  This type of cellulose can suspend and has a yield value which separates it from common cellulose gums.  This readily biodegradable polymer was used in stabilizing O/W emulsions made with organic sunscreens as well as inorganic sunscreens.  In one example, formulators were able to develop an O/W inorganic sunscreen formulation containing 20% w/w zinc oxide.  The polymer showed great synergies with currently available, naturally derived polymers like xanthan gum and hydrophobically modified hydroxyethylcellulose.  In addition, the polymer appeared to yield viscosities similar to the one achieved by polyacrylic acid when used alone or in combination with other naturally-derived thickeners.

As a formulator, I am still hopeful in finding an exact replica of a polyacrylic acid type polymer that is naturally derived, biodegradable, efficient, low cost and with good esthetics.  At one point reality will sink in, and will realize that such polymer will not exist.  The mere fact is that the chemical make-up of the backbone of the polymer will be different, and unlike polyacrylic-acid based polymers, the natural ones will not be crosslinked.  Instead, many of the naturally-derived ones are linear polymers with some branching.  In this fast-paced environment, formulators will have to adapt and sharpen their formulation skills.  They will use their creativity and I am sure will create amazing textures with the toolbox they currently have until new technology is introduced or new market trends appear.

Dr. Fares started his career in personal care studying the effect of solvents on sunscreen chemicals.  His interest in skin drug delivery especially from polymeric matrices grew during his graduate work at Rutgers, where he received his Ph. D.

Dr. Fares started his career in personal care studying the effect of solvents on sunscreen chemicals.  His interest in skin drug delivery especially from polymeric matrices grew during his graduate work at Rutgers, where he received his Ph. D.

Dr. Fares worked at Block Drug and GlaxoSmithKline where he held positions in research and development in the areas of skincare and oral care.  After that, he joined L’Oréal where he held several positions of increasing responsibility leading to AVP of skincare.  He is currently the Senior Director of skincare and oral care at Ashland Specialty Ingredients.  Dr. Fares is the author of many publications, and patents and made many presentations in national and international meetings in the areas of suncare, skincare, and oral care.  Dr Fares chairs the NYSCC scientific committee and has won multiple awards in the areas of sun care and polymer chemistry.

Beauty Tech in Hair Care

by james.runkle@drummondst.com james.runkle@drummondst.com No Comments

Technology touches every aspect of our lives, and the influence of technology in beauty and cosmetics has grown in recent times globally, becoming a quite interesting playground of opportunity for consumers, big multinational brands, and entrepreneurs.  There have been increasingly more examples of beauty tech advancements in skin care; however, offerings for beauty tech in hair care have been limited in comparison.  This blog provides an overview of beauty tech and examples of how technology has advanced the consumer beauty care experience, specifically within the hair care space.

Exploration of Beauty Tech

From a global perspective, beauty tech and innovation has been popular in Asia, with advancements making their way west as consumers become more advanced, engaged, and open to new things.  At the core, all consumer desire the same thing – efficacy.  I think of beauty tech as an opportunity to empower consumers to have a more meaningful, convenient & effective beauty care experience.  This can be achieved through multiple channels:  devices, artificial intelligence (AI) and augmented reality (AR) to name a few.

Devices

A beauty device is any electrically powered hardware that is used for a specific purpose within the beauty or grooming experience.  Consumers are most familiar with devices given their use of styling implements such as blow dryers, flat irons, hot rollers, etc.  The global beauty devices market is expected to grow from roughly $39 billion in 2018 to $107 billion by 2024 (1). A highlight of interesting devices for hair care follows.

Independent beauty tech company, THE MOST, offers two innovative devices that address convenience and care in the styling of textured hair.  The Mint is a tool that allows the user to insert prefilled cartridges, “Mint Minis,” of hair products, into The Mint, which then heats the product and dispenses it from the device’s bristles (2, 3).  The result is a quicker grooming experience due to simultaneous product application and detangling, a step that can generally take a while depending on the curl pattern, length, and density of the hair.  From an automated mechanical perspective, the company has developed the Knot Your Average Sonic Detangler Brush, a brush with comb-like bristles that oscillate to efficiently detangle curly and coily hair.

Devices that address hair concerns such as growth and scalp health are penetrating the market due to increased consumer focus in these areas. Cosmetics Design-Europe recently reported on one such example – the Verdure LED Hair Regrowth Scalp Activator, a device that uses light stimulation and ionic vibration to help stimulate hair growth (4).  Another example is the BeautyBio GloPro Scalp Attachment, a tool that reportedly supports the appearance of hair growth through the microneedling action of the device.  This scalp stimulation helps to reawaken the scalp, promote blood and nutrient circulation, and reduce buildup.  Additionally, there is considerable patent activity for upcoming hair growth devices (5).

As sustainability is a key driver for innovation, some companies have leveraged technology to impact areas such as water usage and waste (6).  L’Oréal has collaborated with Gjosa to devise a water-saving showerhead and dispensing system for salons and future home use.  The L’Oréal Water Saver works by a water micronization technology; micronized product is mixed into the high-pressure, small droplet water stream of the showerhead, thereby resulting in up to 80% reduction in water usage vs. a standard showerhead (7).  The Réduit One hair and skin care device addresses waste reduction by utilizing pods containing concentrated ingredients, and a dispensing mechanism that delivers the product in a mist of tiny droplets. The benefit is improved efficacy and 20 times less waste vs. standard products (6). The 5 mL Hairpods (and Skinpods), which are equivalent 200 mL or 50 mL of standard hair or skin care products, respectively, can be returned for recycling when they are empty.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence (AI) and automated data processing has enabled beauty tech to do remarkable new things.  AI works by mining data to offer personalized solutions.  A relatable example of this is Lancôme’s make-up mixing station which works as follows: a customer’s skin is evaluated by a colorimeter, the color data is processed using an algorithm that then outputs the best combination of pigments to produce the consumer’s perfectly matched shade of foundation.

For hair care, AI has been particularly useful for diagnostic tools and product recommendations.  Hair AI by John Paul Mitchell Systems consists of a scanner/zoom lens that can be attached to a smartphone camera and an app that then analyzes the image of the hair and scalp to provide insight such as condition and relevant products.  This diagnostic tool is specifically for use by hair care professionals. Myavana is a platform and app that provides personalized hair care product recommendations and guidance to subscribers with textured hair using a combination of AI, technical analyses of the subscribers’ hair and one-on-one stylist consultations.  Additionally, the latest offering from Myavana is an app that utilizes image recognition technology and AI to analyze an image of the consumer’s hair for the purpose of recommending suitable products (8).

Augmented Reality (AR)

Augmented reality (AR) is a technology in which a new experience is simulated based on the overlay of information and virtual objects on real-world scenes in real-time (9).  That new experience could be as simple as a new appearance (think applying a filter that adds features such as eyelashes to your favorite selfie) or as complex as interacting with products in a store.  A useful example of AR in hair care is virtual hair color apps such as Clairol MyShade and the Milton Reed “Try On” Tool.  These tools provide consumers with the valuable and convenient experience of “trying on” different hair colors before committing to a coloring treatment with potentially long-lasting effects.  Simply upload a picture or live stream from your smartphone!  The key opportunity for AR in the future will be in creating fully immersive shopping and wellness experiences (10).

Conclusion

Beauty tech centers on leveraging advanced technical capabilities to address a need and introduce convenience and personalization to the beauty care experience.  I hope this blog inspires readers to think of the untapped opportunities that exist in hair care, for which the use of technology such as devices, AI and AR can offer advancement.  The cosmetic industry has done a great job of delivering chemistries and formulations to address consumer needs, and the compliment of technology will propel us even further in our quest to deliver next level hair care benefits and experiences.  Beauty tech can offer viable solutions for improved care and efficacy, inclusivity / personalization, and sustainability in the beauty industry.

References

  1. Fulton, B. (2020, November 10). At-home beauty tech sees a lockdown boom. https://www.voguebusiness.com/technology/at-home-beauty-tech-sees-a-lockdown-boom
  2. Myers, D. (2019, March 20). U.S. Patent US20200093248A1. Enhanced hair product application with concurrent styling.
  3. Graham, M. (2018, December 18). Meet Dawn Myers, founder and CEO of The Most. https://www.lifewire.com/meet-dawn-myers-founder-and-ceo-of-the-most-5092881
  4. Lim, A. (2021, October 19). Verdure says underserved hair care market due for a tech upgrade. https://www.cosmeticsdesign-europe.com/Article/2021/10/19/Verdure-says-underserved-hair-care-market-due-for-a-tech-upgrade
  5. McDougall, A. (2021, May 31). The future of haircare, styling & colour: 2021 [Industry Report]. Mintel. https://www.mintel.com
  6. Di Gesu, R. (2021, April 31). A year of innovation in haircare, styling & colour, 2021 [Industry Report]. Mintel. https://www.mintel.com
  7. L’Oréal Articles. (2021, August 1). L’Oréal water saver: using water sustainably in salon and at-home. Available at https://www.loreal.com/en/articles/science-and-technology/loreal-water-saver-the-new-sustainable-haircare-system
  8. Pernell, A. (2020, June 22). Myavana launches new mobile app for hair product recommendations from a photo. Available at https://urbangeekz.com/2020/06/myavana-launches-new-mobile-app-for-hair-product-recommendations-from-a-photo
  9. Fjermedal, G. (2021, April 9). Beauty tech: the complete guide 2021. Available at https://www.perfectcorp.com/business/blog/general/the-complete-guide-to-beauty-tech?gclid=EAIaIQobChMI76ehvfrl8wIVAgaICR3xRgSMEAMYASAAEgIv4vD_BwE
  10. (2021, October 23). Alternative Realities [Industry Trend Report]. https://www.mintel.com

 

Biography

Dr. Amber Evans is a cosmetic industry professional with over a decade of experience in research and innovation. In her current position as Senior Manager of Product Development at Moroccanoil, she leverages her technical expertise to help drive the global launch of prestige hair & body care products.  Prior to Moroccanoil, she worked as a development scientist at ingredient supplier BASF Corporation, where her contributions spanned multiple market segments, including hair, body, and oral care. She also previously supported initiatives such as upstream research for hair colorants and clinical testing for skin/shave care applications at Procter & Gamble.

Dr. Evans holds a Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Sciences (Cosmetic Science focus) from University of Cincinnati and a B.S. in Chemistry from North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University.  She has authored hair care research publications, contributed content to NaturallyCurly.com, the leading resource for textured hair care, and featured on multiple platforms that support aspiring scientists and early career professionals.  As a mentor, active member of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists (SCC), peer reviewer for the Journal of Cosmetic Science and editorial advisory board member for Global Cosmetic Industry (GCI) Magazine, Dr. Evans is dedicated to influencing the progression of the cosmetic field.

 

Disclaimer:  All views expressed are my own and do not represent the opinions of any entity whatsoever with which I have been, am now or will be affiliated.  The mentioning of technologies herein does not constitute an endorsement.